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Table 2 Physiological responses to 60 minutes of leg immersion of subjects in the tropical Asian group (TR, TR-S, TR-L) and the Japanese group (JP) 1

From: Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan

Variable TR-S,2n = 5 TR-L, n = 7 TR. n = 12 JP, n = 12
Initial Tre,°C 37.02 ± 0.14c 36.98 ± 0.06c 37.00 ± 0.06d 36.74 ± 0.04
Final Tre,°C 37.62 ± 0.12 37.49 ± 0.08 37.53 ± 0.08 37.46 ± 0.07
ΔTre,°C +0.60 ± 0.07e +0.51 ± 0.07e +0.53 ± 0.06c +0.72 ± 0.05
Initial T ¯ sk ,°C 33.29 ± 0.12 33.37 ± 0.15 33.33 ± 0.10 33.43 ± 0.06
Final T ¯ sk ,°C 35.09 ± 0.18 35.20 ± 0.33 35.15 ± 0.13 34.90 ± 0.22
HR, beats/min 76 ± 3 81 ± 4 79 ± 3 73 ± 3
ΔHR, beats/min 27 ± 3 20 ± 4 22 ± 3 22 ± 3
Baseline FBF, ml/100 ml 2.96 ± 0.25e 3.75 ± 0.49e 3.42 ± .32e 2.61 ± 0.29
Final FBF, ml/100 ml 5.92 ± 0.53 6.87 ± 0.92 6.47 ± 0.43 7.14 ± 0.58
Relative change in FBF, % 99 ± 16c 88 ± 20c 92 ± 13c 193 ± 24
Baseline FVC, ml/100 ml/mmHg 0.04 ± 0.01e 0.047 ± 0.01e 0.042 ± 0.00c 0.03 ± 0.03
Final FVC, ml/100 ml/mmHg 0.07 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01
Relative change in FVC, % 97 ± 16c 93 ± 24c 94 ± 15d 185 ± 26
M ˙ sw , g/m2/h 63.1 ± 8.10e 79.0 ± 6.1 71.64 ± 4.93e 88.33 ± 6.99
OT on the forehead, minutes 17.9 ± 0.8f,c 11.2 ± 17.9 14.5 ± 1.37 11.7 ± 1.4
OT on the upper back, minutes 17.6 ± 0.8f,3 11.3 ± 0.8 14.4 ± 1.453 10.3 ± 1.2
OT on the forearm, minutes 13.0 ± 2.0g 8.8 ± 1.4 10.9 ± 1.33 12.5 ± 1.4
  1. aData are presented as mean ± standard error.
  2. bAbbreviations: Tre, rectal temperature; ΔTre, rise in rectal temperature after 60 minutes of leg immersion; T ¯ sk , mean skin temperatures; FBF, forearm blood flow; FVC, forearm vascular conductance; HR, heart rate; ΔHR, change in heart rate after 60 minutes of leg immersion; M ˙ sw , total sweat rate; OT, sweating onset time; TR-L, Tropical subjects who had stayed in Japan for > 23 months before the experiment; TR-S, Tropical subjects who had stayed in Japan for < 11 months before the experiment.
  3. cP < 0.05 compared with the JP group.
  4. dP < 0.01 compared with the JP group.
  5. eP < 0.1 compared with the JP group.
  6. fP < 0.05 between TR-S and TR-L.
  7. gP < 0.1 between TR-S and TR-L.