Skip to main content

Table 2 Cardiorespiratory variables during sitting, quiet standing and passive walking-like leg movement in the young and older groups

From: Higher ventilatory responses during and after passive walking-like leg movement in older individuals

   Sitting Quiet standing PWM Quiet standing (recovery) Sitting (recovery)
   First 1 minute Last 1 minute First minute Second minute Third minute Fifth minute Seventh minute
V · E (l/minute)                      
 Young   8.0 ± 1.9   8.4 ± 2.1   11.4 ± 2.2 ***,### 9.2 ± 2.0 * 7.2 ± 1.8 # 7.6 ± 1.7   7.9 ± 1.7   8.2 ± 1.5   8.8 ± 1.9   8.2 ± 1.5  
 Older   6.9 ± 1.6   7.5 ± 1.2   10.4 ± 2.5 ***,### 9.4 ± 2.2 ***,## 8.0 ± 2.1   7.5 ± 1.7   8.0 ± 1.7   7.9 ± 1.2   7.9 ± 1.6   7.2 ± 1.8  
V · O 2 (ml/minute)                      
 Young   204 ± 51   210 ± 54   337 ± 81 ***,### 240 ± 63 * 169 ± 44 *,## 181 ± 42   190 ± 37   195 ± 41   209 ± 49   208 ± 45  
 Older   160 ± 31   170 ± 23   272 ± 73 ***,### 243 ± 70 ***,### 179 ± 48   171 ± 41   182 ± 40   173 ± 18   176 ± 38   161 ± 23
V · C O 2 (ml/minute)                      
 Young   169 ± 40   174 ± 49   278 ± 61 ***,### 211 ± 51 ***,## 148 ± 41   156 ± 40   159 ± 31   165 ± 32   179 ± 39   174 ± 34  
 Older   137 ± 28   145 ± 20   241 ± 73 ***,### 212 ± 66 ***,## 163 ± 52   151 ± 40   157 ± 40   148 ± 18   151 ± 32   140 ± 23
PaCO2pre (mmHg)                      
 Young   38.6 ± 1.3 # 37.5 ± 1.4 * 38.9 ± 2.4   37.9 ± 2.0   36.4 ± 1.6 *** 36.6 ± 1.7 *** 36.8 ± 1.1 *** 36.5 ± 1.3 *** 36.1 ± 1.3 ***,# 37.5 ± 1.9 *
 Older   38.8 ± 2.7 37.5 ± 2.8 38.0 ± 2.4 37.8 ± 2.3 36.5 ± 1.7 36.7 ± 2.2 36.8 ± 2.0 36.4 ± 2.6 36.7 ± 2.7 37.6 ± 1.7
HR (beats/minute)                      
 Young   78 ± 9 ### 88 ± 11 *** 90 ± 10 *** 86 ± 10 *** 83 ± 10 ***,# 84 ± 7 *** 87 ± 7 *** 88 ± 9 *** 89 ± 10 *** 77 ± 12 ###
 Older ††† 66 ± 8 75 ± 12 76 ± 13 73 ± 9 72 ± 10 75 ± 10 75 ± 10 75 ± 11 75 ± 12 66 ± 9
  1. A significant main effect for conditions, main effect for groups and their interaction were observed for minute ventilation ( V · E ), pulmonary oxygen uptake ( V · O 2 ) and carbon dioxide output ( V · C O 2 ). On the other hand, since a significant main effect for conditions without interaction was observed for PaCO2pre and heart rate (HR), data were analyzed to identify the simple main effect for conditions when data obtained in the two groups at each time point were combined. In addition, since a significant main effect for age was observed for HR, data were analyzed to identify the simple main effect for age when data obtained at all time periods in each age group were combined. PaCO2pre, predicted arterial carbon dioxide pressure, calculated using data on end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure and tidal volume; PWM, passive walking-like leg movement.
  2. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, and ***P <0.001, compared with the value at pre-PWM sitting.
  3. #P <0.05, ##P <0.01, and ###P <0.001, compared with the value at pre-PWM standing.
  4. P <0.05 and †††P <0.001, compared with the value in the young group.