Images of girl, 13.0 years of age, with synchronous dentofacial development without dental crowding. (a) Panoramic projection of teeth. Dental age = 12.5 years. (b) Anatomical landmarks used for calculation of the centroid size. Facial skeletal age = 13.0 years. Note the horizontal impaction of the upper left canine in (a) and (b). Synchronous dentofacial development, even without mandibular dental crowding, does not mean absence of any other stomatognathic system abnormalities. (c) Individual mesiodistal crown lengths of incisors (Wi). Measurement of mesiodistal crown lengths of mandibular permanent teeth implies multiple horizontal computed tomographic scan slices. As images were obtained in a closed mouth position, horizontal section images could reveal both mandibular and maxillary tooth structures. (d) Individual mesiodistal crown lengths of canines and premolars (Wcp). Wi + Wcp = 63.0 mm. (e) Arch perimeter = 64.6 mm. Green lines in (c) and (d) are mesiodistal crown lengths. Green curve in (e) is the arch perimeter (blue dots are construction points).