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Figure 2 | Journal of Physiological Anthropology

Figure 2

From: Asynchronous dentofacial development and dental crowding: a cross-sectional study in a contemporary sample of children in France

Figure 2

Images of girl, 13.5 years of age, with delayed facial skeletal growth and advanced dental maturation asynchronous dentofacial development and dental crowding. (a) Panoramic projection of teeth. Dental age = 16.2. (b) Anatomical landmarks used to calculate the centroid size. Facial skeletal age = 12.0. (c) Individual mesiodistal crown lengths of incisors (Wi). (d) Individual mesiodistal crown lengths of canines and premolars (Wcp). Wi + Wcp = 68.0 mm. (e) Arch perimeter = 58.2 mm. In (c), (d) and (e), measurement of mesiodistal crown lengths of mandibular permanent teeth implies multiple horizontal computed tomographic scan slices. As images were obtained with the children’s mouths closed, horizontal section images could reveal both mandibular and maxillary tooth structures. Green lines in (c) and (d) are mesiodistal crown lengths. Green curve in (e) is the arch perimeter (blue dots are construction points).

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