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Table 2 Maturity-related differences in anthropometry, body composition and maximal voluntary joint torque in adolescent boys

From: Effect of maturation on muscle quality of the lower limb muscles in adolescent boys

  PH I PH II PH III PH IV PH V Significance Effect size (η 2 )
Age, years 13.0 ± 0.4 13.3 ± 0.6 13.7 ± 0.6 14.0 ± 0.6 14.1 ± 0.6 1 < 3 to 5, 2 < 4-5 0.19
Height, cm 146.6 ± 8.1 154.6 ± 7.7 159.7 ± 7.1 165.1 ± 5.8 165.4 ± 5.3 1 < 2 to 5, 2 < 4 to 5, 3 < 4 0.20
Weight, kg 38.8 ± 6.4 43.2 ± 8.2 47.4 ± 7.0 53.7 ± 5.6 53.4 ± 7.7 1 < 3 to 5, 2 < 4 to 5, 3 < 4 0.13
BMI, kg/m 2 18.0 ± 1.6 18.0 ± 1.9 18.5 ± 1.3 19.6 ± 1.3 19.4 ± 1.7 1 < 4, 2 < 4 to 5 0.03
Percent body fat, % 13.8 ± 3.3 13.6 ± 5.7 14.1 ± 3.4 15.8 ± 3.9 16.3 ± 4.2   0.01
LBM, kg 33.3 ± 4.3 37.0 ± 5.2 40.6 ± 4.8 45.1 ± 4.0 44.4 ± 4.4 1,2 < 3 to 5, 3 < 4 0.20
Limb length, cm  
Femur 35.0 ± 2.7 37.3 ± 2.7 37.7 ± 2.1 39.3 ± 2.0 38.7 ± 2.1 1 < 3 to 5, 2 < 4 0.05
Lower leg 34.5 ± 2.6 36.6 ± 2.3 37.6 ± 2.0 38.5 ± 1.6 38.5 ± 1.6 1 < 2 to 5, 2 < 4-5 0.08
Muscle thickness, cm  
KE 4.1 ± 0.5 4.0 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.5 4.8 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4 1,2 < 4 to 5, 3 < 4 0.11
PF 5.7 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 6.2 ± 0.5 6.6 ± 0.4 6.4 ± 0.5 1,2 < 3 to 5, 3 < 4 0.12
Muscle volume index, cm 3  
KE 748 ± 380 986 ± 381 1119 ± 323 1448 ± 258 1342 ± 265 1 < 3 to 5, 2 < 4 to 5, 3 < 4 0.11
PF 582 ± 143 670 ± 150 787 ± 146 899 ± 115 848 ± 142 1,2 < 3 to 5, 3 < 4 0.15
Maximal voluntary joint torque, Nm  
KET 103.8 ± 29.7 124.3 ± 37.6 147.7 ± 36.3 168.0 ± 39.4 161.6 ± 39.9 1 < 3 to 5, 2 < 4-5 0.07
PFT 59.9 ± 16.9 84.3 ± 26.4 107.5 ± 39.3 123.4 ± 34.1 100.4 ± 23.8 1 < 2 to 5, 2 < 4 0.09
TQ/MV, Nm/cm 3  
KET/MV 0.16 ± 0.06 0.14 ± 0.05 0.14 ± 0.04 0.12 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.03   0.01
PFT/MV 0.11 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.03 0.14 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.03   0.01
  1. BMI, body mass index; KE, knee extensors; KET, knee extension torque; LBM, lean body mass; MV, muscle volume index; PF, ankle planter flexors; PFT, ankle plantar flexion torque; TQ, maximal voluntary isometric joint torque.