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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population based on hemoglobin A 1C (HbA1c) level quintiles

From: Association between hemoglobin A1c and carotid atherosclerosis in rural community-dwelling elderly Japanese men

  HbA 1c level quintiles  
  Q1 (low) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 (high) P
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) median values, % 5.04 5.35 5.45 5.76 6.17  
 Total subjects
  No. at risk 190 205 258 246 251  
  Age, year 70.3 ± 6.3 70.5 ± 7.6 70.3 ± 6.7 70.7 ± 7.0 70.3 ± 7.0  
  Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 144 ± 20 147 ± 22 143 ± 19 143 ± 19 146 ± 22 0.107
  Antihypertensive medication use, % 35.8 30.2 38.8 35.8 40.6 0.165
  Body mass index, kg/m2 22.8 ± 2.8 23.5 ± 3.1 23.1 ± 2.8 23.9 ± 2.9 24.2 ± 3.4 <0.001
  Current drinker, % 53.2 52.2 51.6 42.3 44.2 0.058
  Current smoker, % 20.5 17.6 24.0 17.5 19.5 0.381
  Serum triglycerides, mg/dL 98 ± 50 119 ± 80 105 ± 58 129 ± 82 134 ± 98 <0.001
  Serum HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 56 ± 15 54 ± 14 56 ± 15 53 ± 14 53 ± 15 0.059
  Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), IU/L 25 ± 12 25 ± 9 24 ± 7 25 ± 8 27 ± 13 0.033
  Glucose-lowering medication use, % 2.1 2.0 1.2 2.8 27.9 <0.001
  Lipid-lowering medication use, % 3.2 5.9 5.4 7.7 10.8 0.020
  History of cardiovascular disease, % 9.5 8.3 12.4 15.9 16.3 0.033
  Taking medication for cardiovascular disease, % 7.4 7.3 11.2 14.6 14.3 0.025
  Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.98 ± 0.32 0.92 ± 0.28 0.92 ± 0.29 0.88 ± 0.22 0.88 ± 0.22 <0.001
  Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), mL/min/1.73 m2 63.7 ± 17.9 67.2 ± 17.6 67.6 ± 17.2 69.5 ± 16.4 70.5 ± 16.8 <0.001
 Low body mass index (BMI)
  No. at risk 103 102 127 98 90  
  Age, year 71.5 ± 6.7 71.5 ± 8.1 70.2 ± 7.2 71.6 ± 7.3 70.7 ± 7.2  
  Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 140 ± 21 142 ± 20 140 ± 18 138 ± 17 140 ± 22 0.543
  Antihypertensive medication use, % 28.2 25.5 29.1 23.5 25.6 0.778
  Body mass index, kg/m2 20.8 ± 1.5 20.9 ± 1.5 20.8 ± 1.7 21.1 ± 1.5 20.7 ± 1.6 0.429
  Current drinker, % 60.2 50.0 50.2 48.2 49.0 0.004
  Current smoker, % 23.3 20.6 29.9 21.4 21.1 0.524
  Serum triglycerides, mg/dL 90 ± 52 101 ± 55 93 ± 50 107 ± 66 103 ± 66 0.175
  Serum HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 60 ± 15 56 ± 14 58 ± 15 56 ± 15 57 ± 16 0.370
  Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), IU/L 26 ± 14 25 ± 9 23 ± 5 25 ± 9 25 ± 10 0.328
  Glucose-lowering medication use, % 3.9 2.9 0.8 10.2 30.0 <0.001
  Lipid-lowering medication use, % 2.9 5.9 4.7 8.2 5.6 0.573
  History of cardiovascular disease, % 7.8 4.9 8.7 14.3 16.7 0.032
  Taking medication for cardiovascular disease, % 5.8 3.9 7.8 13.3 12.2 0.068
  Serum creatinine, mg/dL 1.00 ± 0.37 0.94 ± 0.35 0.91 ± 0.34 0.85 ± 0.16 0.88 ± 0.25 0.006
  GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 62.4 ± 17.0 68.0 ± 20.6 69.6 ± 18.5 71.1 ± 14.7 70.1 ± 17.3 0.004
 High BMI
  No. at risk 87 103 131 148 161  
  Age, year 68.9 ± 5.6 69.5 ± 6.9 70.4 ± 6.1 70.2 ± 6.8 70.1 ± 7.2  
  Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 149 ± 17 152 ± 23 147 ± 19 146 ± 20 150 ± 21 0.154
  Antihypertensive medication use, % 44.8 35.0 48.1 43.9 49.1 0.258
  Body mass index, kg/m2 25.1 ± 1.9 26.0 ± 2.1 25.4 ± 1.7 25.7 ± 1.8 26.1 ± 2.5 0.001
  Current drinker, % 44.8 54.4 55.0 46.6 47.2 0.296
  Current smoker, % 17.2 14.6 18.3 14.9 18.6 0.822
  Serum triglycerides, mg/dL 106 ± 45 137 ± 96 116 ± 62 143 ± 88 152 ± 108 <0.001
  Serum HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 51 ± 14 52 ± 15 54 ± 14 51 ± 12 51 ± 13 0.300
  Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), IU/L 24 ± 10 26 ± 10 24 ± 8 25 ± 8 28 ± 15 0.021
  Glucose-lowering medication use, % 0.0 1.0 1.5 4.1 26.7 <0.001
  Lipid-lowering medication use, % 3.4 5.8 6.1 7.4 13.7 0.028
  History of cardiovascular disease, % 11.5 11.7 16.0 16.9 16.1 0.770
  Taking medication for cardiovascular disease, % 9.2 10.7 14.5 15.5 15.5 0.645
  Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.96 ± 0.26 0.91 ± 0.18 0.93 ± 0.23 0.91 ± 0.25 0.87 ± 0.20 0.021
  GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 65.3 ± 18.8 66.5 ± 14.0 65.6 ± 15.5 68.4 ± 17.4 70.5 ± 16.2 0.021
  1. Low BMI consists of BMI <23 kg/m2 and high BMI consists of BMI ≥23 kg/m2. P: age-adjusted values of P for the trend.