|Author||Country||Group||Ethnicity||Age||Number ofparticipant||Sex||Selection criteria||Dermatoglyphic findings|
|Kulkarni SKG et al. ||India||Case||NR||NR||200||M = 104||
BP above 120/80 mmHg.|
No other secondary diseases causing hypertension
In hypertensives: females and males have high whorl and low ulnar loop in both hands
|F = 96||Not suffering from any genetic disorder||
In hypertensives: the atd angle lowers in both hands of females and males, and both sexes have high TFRC in both hands
|Control||NR||30–40 years of age (age matched with cases)||200||M = 104||BP below 120/80 mmHg|
|F = 96||
No family history of hypertension and not suffering from any genetic illness. |
First degree relatives clinically screened for genetic disorder.
Age matched with cases
|Tafazoli et al. ||Iran||Cases||NR||Average age = 60 years||40||NR||Patients with essential hypertension||
In hypertensives: much higher frequency of whorls. Significantly larger atd angle on left hand of females
Healthy people. |
No family history of high blood pressure
|Bulagouda et al. ||India||Cases||NR||20–50 years of age||100||M = 50||
Clinically diagnosed cases of essential hypertension. |
No diseases causing secondary hypertension.
No chromosomal abnormalities
In hypertensives: the right and left hand showed more arches and radial loops in both sexes, Less ulnar loop in both hands in both sexes, only the right hand of female show more whorls, and presence of Sydney line
In hypertensives: TFRC is significantly lower in males.
|F = 50|
|Control||NR||20–50 years||100||M = 50||Age and sex matched control group|
|F = 50|
|Deepa G ||India||Cases||NR||NR||100||M = 50||Essential hypertensive patients visiting OPD and IPD||
In hypertensives (males): first and fourth digits showed more whorls and arches and less loops.
In hypertensives (females): the digit 1 of females showed more whorls and arches and less loops while digit 2 showed more whorls, loops and less arches.
In hypertensives (for both sexes): decreased a–b ridge counts, decreased adt angle and lower dat value, higher RC in first digit and fifth digit. The lower RC In second digit of left hand and higher ridge count in right hand on the same digit.
In hypertensives (males): reduced a–b ridge count, reduced adt angle and more 11 9 7 5’ 13’ main-line formula, increased RC in D1, D3, and D5.
In hypertensives (females): Increased “dat” angle, more 11 9 7 5’ 13’ main-line formula D1 and D2 have higher ridge counts
|F = 50|
|Control||NR||NR||100||M = 50||Healthy subjects|
|F = 50||Other selection criteria’s NR. (matched for sex, lifestyle and economic status of cases)|
|Kachhave et al. a||India||Cases||NRA||NRA||60||NRA||Essential hypertensive patients visiting OPD or admitted in medical wards||
In hypertensives: ulnar loop frequency is low.
In hypertensives: TFRC is higher and atd angle showed a significant decrease in both hands
|Control||NRA||NRA||60||NRA||Selection criteria for normal individuals NRA|
|Oladipo et al. ||Nigeria||Cases||Indigenes of Rivers State of Nigeria||35 above||50||M = 26||BP measured to confirm hypertension||
In hypertensives: the whorls showing the highest frequency in most digits of both the right and left hands of males and females.
The whorls on the first digit of right hand were strongly associated with essential hypertensive patients. No associations observed for t t11 t111.
In hypertensives (for both sexes): TRC for each finger is higher.
In hypertensives (male): higher atd and lower dat angles of the left hand
|F = 24|
|Secondary causes excluded with assistance of consultant|
|Control||Indigenes of Rivers State of Nigeria||35 above||50||M = 26||Healthy subjects|
|F = 24||Selection criteria’s NR|
|Vidya et al. ||India||Cases||South Indian||40–60||200||M = 100||
Essential hypertensive patient attendinginpatient medicine department and OPD.|
Not having diseases causing secondary hypertension
In hypertensives (male): less hypothenar pattern in left hand and Simian type 1 pattern less observed.
In hypertensives (female): less interdigital area 2 pattern in females (both hands combined) compared with controls.
In hypertensives (male): in hypothenar area, left hand had fewer patterns than controls
|F = 100|
|Control||South Indian||Matched control||200||M = 100||Matched for sex, lifestyle, and economic status|
|F = 100|
|Kulkarni DU et al. a||Western Maharashtra India||Cases||Western Maharashtra population||NRA||NRA||NRA||Clinically diagnosed and proved essential hypertensive patients||
In hypertensives: increased TRC and deceased atd angle
|Control||Western Maharashtra population||50 above||100||NRA||Age above 50 years|
|Pursnani et al. a||India||Cases||NRA||NRA||NRA||Both sexes||NRA||
In hypertensives (females): decreased frequency of axial triradius t in the right palm.
In hypertensives (males): axial triradius t’ and t” in the right palm
In hypertensives (both sexes): absence of axial triradius in both the palms of an individual was found exclusively in hypertensive cases (10 %) and not in controls.
In hypertensives (both sexes): increased TFRC and decreased atd angle