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Table 1 Summary of studies that assessed association of dermatoglyphics with essential (primary) hypertension

From: Dermatoglyphics in hypertension: a review

Author Country Group Ethnicity Age Number ofparticipant Sex Selection criteria Dermatoglyphic findings
Kulkarni SKG et al. [16] India Case NR NR 200 M = 104 BP above 120/80 mmHg.
No other secondary diseases causing hypertension
Qualitative traits
In hypertensives: females and males have high whorl and low ulnar loop in both hands
F = 96 Not suffering from any genetic disorder Quantitative traits
In hypertensives: the atd angle lowers in both hands of females and males, and both sexes have high TFRC in both hands
Control NR 30–40 years of age (age matched with cases) 200 M = 104 BP below 120/80 mmHg  
F = 96 No family history of hypertension and not suffering from any genetic illness.
First degree relatives clinically screened for genetic disorder.
Age matched with cases
 
Tafazoli et al. [15] Iran Cases NR Average age = 60 years 40 NR Patients with essential hypertension Qualitative traits
In hypertensives: much higher frequency of whorls. Significantly larger atd angle on left hand of females
Control NR NR 20 NR Healthy people.
No family history of high blood pressure
Bulagouda et al. [17] India Cases NR 20–50 years of age 100 M = 50 Clinically diagnosed cases of essential hypertension.
No diseases causing secondary hypertension.
No chromosomal abnormalities
Qualitative traits
In hypertensives: the right and left hand showed more arches and radial loops in both sexes, Less ulnar loop in both hands in both sexes, only the right hand of female show more whorls, and presence of Sydney line
Quantitative traits
In hypertensives: TFRC is significantly lower in males.
F = 50
Control NR 20–50 years 100 M = 50 Age and sex matched control group
F = 50
Deepa G [18] India Cases NR NR 100 M = 50 Essential hypertensive patients visiting OPD and IPD Qualitative traits
In hypertensives (males): first and fourth digits showed more whorls and arches and less loops.
In hypertensives (females): the digit 1 of females showed more whorls and arches and less loops while digit 2 showed more whorls, loops and less arches.
Quantitative traits
In hypertensives (for both sexes): decreased a–b ridge counts, decreased adt angle and lower dat value, higher RC in first digit and fifth digit. The lower RC In second digit of left hand and higher ridge count in right hand on the same digit.
In hypertensives (males): reduced a–b ridge count, reduced adt angle and more 11 9 7 5’ 13’ main-line formula, increased RC in D1, D3, and D5.
In hypertensives (females): Increased “dat” angle, more 11 9 7 5’ 13’ main-line formula D1 and D2 have higher ridge counts
F = 50
Control NR NR 100 M = 50 Healthy subjects
F = 50 Other selection criteria’s NR. (matched for sex, lifestyle and economic status of cases)
Kachhave et al. [19]a India Cases NRA NRA 60 NRA Essential hypertensive patients visiting OPD or admitted in medical wards Qualitative traits
In hypertensives: ulnar loop frequency is low.
Quantitative trait
In hypertensives: TFRC is higher and atd angle showed a significant decrease in both hands
Control NRA NRA 60 NRA Selection criteria for normal individuals NRA
Oladipo et al. [20] Nigeria Cases Indigenes of Rivers State of Nigeria 35 above 50 M = 26 BP measured to confirm hypertension Qualitative traits
In hypertensives: the whorls showing the highest frequency in most digits of both the right and left hands of males and females.
The whorls on the first digit of right hand were strongly associated with essential hypertensive patients. No associations observed for t t11 t111.
Quantitative traits
In hypertensives (for both sexes): TRC for each finger is higher.
In hypertensives (male): higher atd and lower dat angles of the left hand
F = 24
Secondary causes excluded with assistance of consultant
Control Indigenes of Rivers State of Nigeria 35 above 50 M = 26 Healthy subjects
F = 24 Selection criteria’s NR
Vidya et al. [21] India Cases South Indian 40–60 200 M = 100 Essential hypertensive patient attendinginpatient medicine department and OPD.
Not having diseases causing secondary hypertension
Qualitative traits
In hypertensives (male): less hypothenar pattern in left hand and Simian type 1 pattern less observed.
In hypertensives (female): less interdigital area 2 pattern in females (both hands combined) compared with controls.
In hypertensives (male): in hypothenar area, left hand had fewer patterns than controls
F = 100
Control South Indian Matched control 200 M = 100 Matched for sex, lifestyle, and economic status
F = 100
Kulkarni DU et al. [22]a Western Maharashtra India Cases Western Maharashtra population NRA NRA NRA Clinically diagnosed and proved essential hypertensive patients Quantitative traits
In hypertensives: increased TRC and deceased atd angle
Control Western Maharashtra population 50 above 100 NRA Age above 50 years  
Pursnani et al. [23]a India Cases NRA NRA NRA Both sexes NRA Qualitative traits
In hypertensives (females): decreased frequency of axial triradius t in the right palm.
In hypertensives (males): axial triradius t’ and t” in the right palm
In hypertensives (both sexes): absence of axial triradius in both the palms of an individual was found exclusively in hypertensive cases (10 %) and not in controls.
Quantitative traits
In hypertensives (both sexes): increased TFRC and decreased atd angle
Control NRA NRA NRA Both sexes NRA
  1. M male, F female, RC ridge count, NRA not reported in abstract, NR not reported, TFRC total finger ridge count, TRC total ridge count, BP blood pressure, OPD outpatient department, IPD inpatient department
  2. aOnly abstract available