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Table 3 Summary of studies that assessed association of dermatoglyphics with hypertension

From: Dermatoglyphics in hypertension: a review

Author County Group Ethnicity Age Number Sex Diagnostic criteria Dermatoglyphic findings
Lahiri et al. [26] West Bengal India Cases NR More than 20 years of age 131 NR Diagnosed as hypertensive and family history of hypertension Qualitative traits
In hypertensives (both sexes): double loop and arch more and whorl, ulnar loop and radial loop are less.
Quantitative traits
Control NR More than 20 years of age 145 NR Normal blood pressure (not diagnosed as hypertensives) and absence of family history of hypertension In hypertensives (both sexes): average ridge counts per finger were high. Corrected atd angles were high
Umana et al. [27] Nigeria Cases NR NR 118 NR Clinically diagnosed hypertensive patients visiting OPD Qualitative traits
In hypertensives (female): significantly higher loop and slightly higher whorl and low arch patterns in both hands
Control NR NR 126 NR Normotensive and no family history of hypertension
Rashad et al. [28] Island of Oahu Hawaii Cases American Japanese NR Total 742. (the prevalence of hypertension is 9.2) Males Hypertension was diagnosed with published criteria by AHA 1960 No significant difference in qualitative traits (finger patterns) or quantitative traits (TRC and ARC)
Control American Japanese NR people who did not develop hypertension Males People who did not develop hypertension
Reed T [29] Indiana USA Case NR Mean 63 years (59–70) at third examination of cohort 308 members of twin cohort Males “Hypertensive if first, whether subject was on Anti hypertensive drugs or not. Second, 2 physicians’ diagnostic impression related to hypertension. If the above criteria are not met, thirdly, the blood pressure mean”. If patient not on medication or diagnosed by physician as hypertensive, considered hypertensive if SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg Qualitative traits
There are no useful relationships between dermatoglyphics and hypertension or strong relationships between the presence of certain dermatoglyphic markers of impaired fetal development.
Except subject with high SBP had lower palmar a–b ridge count.
Quantitative traits
In hypertensives: subjects with high SBP had lower palmar a–b ridge count.
Co-twins showed lower ridge counts on the left hand.
Control NR 316 members of twin cohort Males Normotensive defined as those who attended 2 out of 3 examinations, was not hypertensive or not on antihypertensive at any 3 examinations during 14–18-year study period
  1. M male, F female, NR not reported, TRC total ridge count, BP blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure DBP diastolic blood pressure, ARC absolute ridge counts, AMA American Heart Association