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Table 3 Seasonal differences

From: Seasonality in physical activity and walking of healthy older adults

  Summer to winter    Winter to summer   
(n = 39) (n = 34)
Summer Winter p value Winter Summer p value
Body mass (kg) 59.3 ± 9.5 59.7 ± 9.6 0.0850 66.0 ± 9.9 58.7 ± 9.2 0.0002
Body mass index 24.0 ± 2.4 24.2 ± 2.3 0.0557 24.2 ± 2.4 23.7 ± 2.2 0.0002
Body fat percentage (%) 24.8 ± 5.3 27.4 ± 6.0 <0.0001 27.8 ± 5.6 24.6 ± 5.0 <0.0001
Grip strength (body weight) 0.507 ± 0.103 0.464 ± 0.091 0.0001 0.450 ± 0.074 0.480 ± 0.093 0.0087
Single-leg stance (s) 41.9 ± 22.3 46.6 ± 15.8 0.0087 47.8 ± 15.2 42.6 ± 21.3 0.0027
Steps per day (steps) 8084 ± 3237 6098 ± 2625 <0.0001 6021 ± 2569 8581 ± 3397 <0.0001
Cycle duration (s) 1.013 ± 0.100 0.978 ± 0.091 0.0006 0.970 ± 0.085 1.007 ± 0.095 0.0048
Cycle duration (dimensionless) 3.54 ± 0.31 3.49 ± 0.33 0.1710 3.47 ± 0.33 3.57 ± 0.31 0.0228
Speed (m/s) 1.250 ± 0.144 1.306 ± 0.181 0.0084 1.319 ± 0.176 1.234 ± 0.153 0.0098
Speed (dimensionless) 0.447 ± 0.059 0.474 ± 0.067 0.0008 0.479 ± 0.065 0.447 ± 0.060 0.0082
Stride length (m) 1.255 ± 0.089 1.270 ± 0110 0.2325 1.274 ± 0.110 1.232 ± 0.088 0.0241
Stride length (dimensionless) 1.570 ± 0.137 1.638 ± 0.152 0.0023 1.645 ± 0.147 1.581 ± 0.145 0.0195
Trunk pitch range (degrees) 9.59 ± 2.36 10.64 ± 2.24 0.0139 10.72 ± 2.23 9.53 ± 1.92 0.0090
Head-trunk pitch (degrees) 6.01 ± 1.49 6.91 ± 1.81 0.0041 7.00 ± 1.71 6.19 ± 1.33 0.0042
  1. Mean ± SD. Paired t-test