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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for high levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by Mt5178 C/A genotype and coffee consumption

From: Mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of coffee consumption on elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in male Japanese health check-up examinees: an exploratory cross-sectional study

Genotype and coffee consumption Frequency (%) OR (95 % CI) Adjusted ORa (95 % CI)
  Normal levels of serum AST High levels of serum AST   
  Serum AST levels <30 U/L Serum AST levels ≥30 U/L   
Mt5178C     
 <1 cup per day 87 (75.6) 28 (25.4) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 66 (83.5) 13 (16.5) 0.612 (0.295–1.272) 0.490 (0.212–1.134)
 ≥3 cups per day 51 (89.5) 6 (10.5) 0.366 (0.142–0.942)* 0.242 (0.081–0.730)*
    P for trend = 0.026 P for trend = 0.013
Mt5178A     
 <1 cup per day 49 (79.0) 13 (21.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 56 (82.4) 12 (17.6) 0.808 (0.337–1.934) 0.833 (0.294–2.362)
 ≥3 cups per day 34 (85.0) 6 (15.0) 0.665 (0.230–1.923) 0.818 (0.231–2.901)
    P for trend = 0.438 P for trend = 0.656
  1. *P < 0.05
  2. aOR adjusted for age, body mass index, habitual alcohol consumption, habitual smoking, green tea consumption, antihypertensive treatment, and antidiabetic treatment