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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for high levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by Mt5178 C/A genotype and coffee consumption

From: Mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of coffee consumption on elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in male Japanese health check-up examinees: an exploratory cross-sectional study

Genotype and coffee consumption Frequency (%) OR (95 % CI) Adjusted ORa (95 % CI)
Normal levels of serum ALT High levels of serum ALT
  Serum ALT levels ≤30 U/L Serum ALT levels >30 U/L   
Mt5178C     
 <1 cup per day 82 (71.3) 33 (28.7) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 56 (70.9) 23 (29.1) 1.021 (0.543–1.919) 0.797 (0.375–1.694)
 ≥3 cups per day 45 (79.0) 12 (21.0) 0.663 (0.312–1.409) 0.407 (0.148–1.115)
    P for trend = 0.346 P for trend = 0.090
Mt5178A     
 <1 cup per day 41 (66.1) 21 (33.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 51 (75.0) 17 (25.0) 0.651 (0.304–1.392) 0.416 (0.160–1.080)
 ≥3 cups per day 26 (65.0) 14 (35.0) 1.051 (0.456–2.425) 0.695 (0.249–1.941)
    P for trend = 0.953 P for trend = 0.285
  Serum ALT levels <25 U/L Serum ALT levels ≥25 U/L   
Mt5178C     
 <1 cup per day 64 (55.6) 51 (44.4) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 49 (62.0) 30 (38.0) 0.768 (0.428–1.379) 0.556 (0.274–1.129)
 ≥3 cups per day 43 (75.4) 14 (24.6) 0.409 (0.202–0.828)* 0.198 (0.077–0.512)**
    P for trend = 0.015 P for trend < 0.001
Mt5178A     
 <1 cup per day 32 (51.6) 30 (48.4) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 38 (55.9) 30 (44.1) 0.842 (0.422–1.680) 0.805 (0.364–1.781)
 ≥3 cups per day 22 (55.0) 18 (45.0) 0.873 (0.393–1.938) 0.585 (0.212–1.611)
    P for trend = 0.701 P for trend = 0.353
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001
  2. aOR adjusted for age, body mass index, habitual alcohol consumption, habitual smoking, green tea consumption, antihypertensive treatment, and antidiabetic treatment