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Table 4 Characteristics of middle-aged and elderly men with sarcopenia defined by height-adjusted ASM or weight-adjusted ASM

From: Comparison between clinical significance of height-adjusted and weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass

  Sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht2 Sarcopenia defined by ASM/Wt
Normal Class 1 Class 2 *P value Normal Class 1 Class 2 *P value
Sarcopenia Sarcopenia One-way ANCOVA Post hoc analysis Sarcopenia Sarcopenia One-way ANCOVA Post hoc analysis
Number 185 (67.8%) 76 (27.8%) 12 (4.4%) 168 (61.5%) 89 (32.6%) 16 (5.9%)
Age (years) 57 ± 10 64 ± 13 70 ± 14 57 ± 11 62 ± 12 69 ± 11
Height (cm) 169.5 ± 6.2 167.5 ± 5.9 164.4 ± 7.4 N.S.   169.2 ± 6.5 168.1 ± 5.8 166.6 ± 6.7 N.S.  
Weight (kg) 66.0 ± 5.5 60.5 ± 6.3 53.4 ± 6.5 <0.001 a,b,c 63.5 ± 6.8 64.8 ± 6.1 63.1 ± 8.2 <0.01  
BMI (kg/m2) 23.0 ± 1.2 21.5 ± 1.5 19.5 ± 1.4 <0.001 a,b,c 22.1 ± 1.6 22.9 ± 1.3 22.7 ± 1.8 N.S.  
WC (cm) 82.9 ± 5.2 81.5 ± 5.8 75.1 ± 5.2 <0.001 a,b,c 80.2 ± 5.1 85.1 ± 4.4 84.9 ± 7.3 N.S.  
Percent body fat (%) 19.7 ± 3.7 20.8 ± 4.2 20.1 ± 4.0 18.1 ± 3.4 22.9 ± 2.0 24.4 ± 3.4
Handgrip strength (kg) 40.5 ± 7.0 34.9 ± 6.1 31.9 ± 6.5 <0.001 a,b 40.7 ± 6.9 35.5 ± 6.7 33.5 ± 6.1 <0.01 a,b
Whole-body BMD (g/cm2) 1.142 ± 0.109 1.078 ± 0.084 1.019 ± 0.113 <0.001 a,b 1.133 ± 0.104 1.097 ± 0.107 1.091 ± 0.135 N.S.  
Arm BMD (g/cm2) 0.799 ± 0.059 0.752 ± 0.049 0.713 ± 0.057 <0.001 a,b,c 0.793 ± 0.059 0.766 ± 0.061 0.755 ± 0.061 N.S.  
Lumbar spine BMD (g/cm2) 1.076 ± 0.190 1.012 ± 0.193 0.944 ± 0.223 <0.01 a,b 1.065 ± 0.181 1.027 ± 0.206 1.067 ± 0.261 N.S.  
Leg BMD (g/cm2) 1.246 ± 0.113 1.158 ± 0.088 1.068 ± 0.089 <0.001 a,b,c 1.234 ± 0.117 1.184 ± 0.103 1.176 ± 0.140 N.S.  
HbA1c (%) 5.29 ± 0.54 5.45 ± 0.63 5.85 ± 1.11 N.S.   5.32 ± 0.60 5.36 ± 0.54 5.76 ± 0.88 N.S.  
TG (mg/dl) 104.2 ± 52.5 100.7 ± 51.3 109.4 ± 46.22 N.S.   96.8 ± 47.0 115.1 ± 59.8 109.5 ± 41.0 N.S.  
HDL-C (mg/dl) 59.7 ± 13.7 61.4 ± 15.1 65.1 ± 17.0 N.S.   62.1 ± 14.5 57.4 ± 13.2 59.0 ± 15.9 N.S.  
TG/HDL ratio 1.92 ± 1.20 1.83 ± 1.23 1.81 ± 0.86 N.S.   1.73 ± 1.12 2.18 ± 1.33 1.92 ± 0.71 N.S.  
SBP (mmHg) 126 ± 14 126 ± 16 127 ± 23 N.S.   125 ± 14 127 ± 15 132 ± 18 N.S.  
DBP (mmHg) 80 ± 10 77 ± 11 74 ± 10 <0.05 a 78 ± 10 79 ± 10 82 ± 11 N.S.  
baPWV (cm/s) 1402 ± 247 1529 ± 308 1758 ± 399 N.S.   1388 ± 243 1515 ± 278 1773 ± 436 <0.001 a,b,c
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, BMD bone mineral density, HbA1c glycohemoglobin A1c, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity
  3. *One-way ANCOVA adjusted for age and percent body fat and post hoc analysis using the least significant difference t test (mean difference between two groups): a, Normal vs. class 1; b, Normal vs. class 2; c, class 1 vs. class 2; all P < 0.05