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Table 5 Characteristics of middle-aged and elderly women with sarcopenia defined by height-adjusted ASM or weight-adjusted ASM

From: Comparison between clinical significance of height-adjusted and weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass

  Sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht2 Sarcopenia defined by ASM/Wt
Normal Class 1 Class 2 *P value Normal Class 1 Class 2 *P value
Sarcopenia Sarcopenia One-way ANCOVA Post hoc analysis Sarcopenia Sarcopenia One-way ANCOVA Post hoc analysis
Number 656 (76.2%) 192 (22.3%) 13 (1.5%) 494 (57.4%) 306 (35.5%) 61 (7.1%)
Age (years) 60 ± 11 62 ± 11 67 ± 11 59 ± 11 62 ± 10 64 ± 10
Height (cm) 155.9 ± 5.9 155.3 ± 5.7 152.8 ± 5.8 N.S.   156.6 ± 5.9 154.6 ± 5.6 153.7 ± 5.7 <0.01 a,b
Weight (kg) 53.1 ± 5.5 48.6 ± 5.0 44.4 ± 5.5 <0.001 a,b,c 50.8 ± 5.8 53.3 ± 5.5 55.1 ± 4.8 <0.001 a,b,c
BMI (kg/m2) 21.9 ± 1.8 20.1 ± 1.8 18.9 ± 1.9 <0.001 a,b,c 20.7 ± 1.8 22.3 ± 1.6 23.3 ± 1.3 N.S.  
WC (cm) 80.4 ± 6.9 77.5 ± 7.3 74.7 ± 7.3 <0.001 a,b,c 76.7 ± 6.3 82.7 ± 6.1 87.1 ± 6.5 N.S.  
Percent body fat (%) 27.5 ± 5.2 29.3 ± 5.0 30.6 ± 5.4 24.8 ± 4.1 31.4 ± 2.6 36.1 ± 2.4
Handgrip strength (kg) 25.7 ± 4.5 23.3 ± 3.7 19.7 ± 4.3 <0.001 a,b,c 26.1 ± 4.6 23.9 ± 3.8 22.4 ± 4.1 N.S.  
Whole-body BMD (g/cm2) 1.003 ± 0.117 0.956 ± 0.102 0.883 ± 0.112 <0.001 a,b,c 1.012 ± 0.119 0.965 ± 0.106 0.945 ± 0.093 N.S.  
Arm BMD (g/cm2) 0.633 ± 0.067 0.605 ± 0.058 0.561 ± 0.064 <0.001 a,b,c 0.640 ± 0.070 0.609 ± 0.057 0.598 ± 0.050 N.S.  
Lumbar spine BMD (g/cm2) 0.952 ± 0.174 0.888 ± 0.156 0.747 ± 0.166 <0.001 a,b,c 0.961 ± 0.181 0.902 ± 0.157 0.885 ± 0.144 N.S.  
Leg BMD (g/cm2) 1.026 ± 0.106 0.97 ± 0.095 0.884 ± 0.104 <0.001 a,b,c 1.030 ± 0.112 0.990 ± 0.095 0.968 ± 0.082 N.S.  
HbA1c (%) 5.38 ± 0.52 5.43 ± 0.53 5.36 ± 0.52 N.S.   5.31 ± 0.41 5.48 ± 0.64 5.56 ± 0.57 N.S.  
TG (mg/dl) 82.6 ± 39.6 88.0 ± 46.1 90.2 ± 45.7 N.S.   76.0 ± 34.6 90.9 ± 44.5 112.5 ± 54.5 <0.05 a,b,c
HDL-C (mg/dl) 71.3 ± 16.8 70.2 ± 15.3 72.5 ± 15.8 N.S.   75.0 ± 16.9 66.8 ± 14.4 61.3 ± 14.3 N.S.  
TG/HDL ratio 1.29 ± 0.92 1.39 ± 1.05 1.47 ± 1.05 N.S.   1.11 ± 0.71 1.52 ± 1.11 2.00 ± 1.32 <0.05 a,b,c
SBP (mmHg) 120 ± 17 122 ± 20 120 ± 19 N.S.   118 ± 17 123 ± 18 130 ± 20 <0.05 a,b,c
DBP (mmHg) 71 ± 10 72 ± 12 69 ± 11 N.S.   70 ± 10 72 ± 10 75 ± 12 <0.05 a,b,c
baPWV (cm/s) 1319 ± 239 1433 ± 313 1607 ± 316 <0.001 a,b,c 1306 ± 245 1386 ± 270 1512 ± 301 <0.01 a,b,c
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, BMD bone mineral density, HbA1c glycohemoglobin A1c, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity
  3. *One-way ANCOVA adjusted for age and percent body fat and post hoc analysis using the least significant difference t test (mean difference between two groups): a, Normal vs. class 1; b, Normal vs. class 2; c, class 1 vs. class 2; all P < 0.05