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Table 1 COP variables of two age groups’ during single-leg standing in each condition

From: Muscle co-contraction in elderly people change due to postural stability during single-leg standing

  Young Elderly
FR LT DO FR LT DO
RDIST [mm] 6.04 ± 2.66 3.73 ± 1.08 2.65 ± 0.64‡‡‡ 6.71 ± 3.06 6.10 ± 1.75*** 3.14 ± 1.36‡‡‡§§§
TOTEX [mm] 271.31 ± 53.16 255.41 ± 49.76††† 254.51 ± 57.51‡‡ 315.64 ± 26.09 302.89 ± 35.35 271.91 ± 44.10‡‡‡§§§
MVELO [mm/s] 90.44 ± 17.72 85.14 ± 16.59††† 84.84 ± 19.17‡‡ 105.21 ± 8.70 100.96 ± 11.78 90.64 ± 14.70‡‡‡§§§
AREA-SD [mm2] 53.27 (40.14–82.24) 30.45 (28.28–33.32) 11.34 (6.18–16.72)‡‡‡§§§ 108.69 (88.75–133.77)*** 73.59 (56.74–80.91)***††† 7.96 (7.18–12.96)‡‡‡§§§
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range)
  2. RDIST the root-mean-square (RMS) distance of COP, TOTEX the total excursion of COP, MVELO the mean velocity of COP, AREA-SD standard deviation area of COP, FR no supporting structure, LT light touch of the index finger to a supporting structure (to touch in force < 1 N), DO dependence on a supporting structure for stabilization as desired]
  3. Significant differences between the young and elderly groups are indicated by asterisks (***p < 0.017). Significant differences between the FR and LT conditions are indicated by daggers ( p < 0.05, ††† p < 0.017). Significant differences between the FR and DO conditions are indicated by double daggers (‡‡ p < 0.025, ‡‡‡ p < 0.017). Significant differences between the LT and DO conditions are indicated by section signs (§§§ p < 0.017)