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Table 3 Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics of studied variables by sex

From: Current health status and its risk factors of the Tsarang villagers living at high altitude in the Mustang district of Nepal

Variables Total Male Female P value
Height (cm) 157.11 ± 9.30 164.18 ± 6.81 151.27 ± 6.66 < 0.0001
Weight (kg) 57.59 ± 10.44 62.59 ± 9.39 53.46 ± 9.45 < 0.0001
BMI 23.28 ± 3.43 23.21 ± 3.17 23.34 ± 3.64 0.8780
 Overweight (BMI ≥ 25) (%) 29.26 (22.98–36.40) 30.59 (21.30–41.66) 28.16 (19.95–38.01) 0.8384
WC (cm) 77.27 ± 8.68 79.43 ± 8.42 75.50 ± 8.52 0.0017
 ≥ 90 cm (male)/≥ 80 cm (female) (%) 23.53 (17.78–30.39) 14.29 (7.92–24.02) 31.07 (22.52–41.05) 0.0118
Hip (cm)a 88.86 ± 7.92 90.00 ± 7.23 87.94 ± 8.36 0.0499
WHRa 0.87 ± 0.05 0.88 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.05 0.0062
 > 0.9 (male)/> 0.85 (female) (%) 50.82 (43.37–58.24) 40.24 (29.74–51.67) 59.41 (49.16–68.93) 0.0151
SpO2 (%) 90.60 ± 3.21 90.47 ± 3.48 90.71 ± 2.97 0.9913
 Hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90%) (%) 27.13 (21.04–34.17) 28.24 (19.26–39.20) 26.21 (18.27–35.97) 0.8843
Heart rate (bpm) 81.57 ± 12.13 81.35 ± 13.74 81.76 ± 10.68 0.8249
SBP (mmHg) 122.67 ± 18.22 128.36 ± 16.77 117.97 ± 18.11 < 0.0001
 ≥ 140 mmHg (%) 17.02 (12.09–23.33) 23.53 (15.29–34.20) 11.65 (6.43–19.84) 0.0498
DBP (mmHg) 77.07 ± 11.61 79.67 ± 10.72 74.92 ± 11.92 0.0030
 ≥ 90 mmHg (%) 13.30 (8.95–19.19) 16.47 (9.62–26.43) 10.68 (5.72–18.69) 0.3431
HTb 20.74 (15.33–27.39) 27.06 (18.26–37.96) 15.53 (9.41–24.30) 0.0786
Hb (g/dL)c 13.82 ± 1.74 14.48 ± 1.42 13.33 ± 1.80 < 0.0001
 < 13 (male)/< 12 (female) (%) 17.42 (12.31–23.97) 14.47 (7.79–24.85) 19.61 (12.66–28.89) 0.0028
 13 to < 18 (male)/12 to < 16 (female) (%) 76.40 (69.35–82.29) 85.53 (75.15–92.91) 69.61 (59.59–78.12)  
 ≥ 18 (male)/≥ 16 (female) (%) 6.18 (3.28–11.07) 0 10.78 (5.77–18.87)  
HbA1c (NGSP; %)d 5.96 ± 0.99 5.90 ± 1.00 6.01 ± 0.98 0.1051
 6.0 to < 6.5% (%) 31.61 (24.90–39.15) 27.27 (18.04–38.81) 35.05 (25.83–45.48) 0.5544
 ≥ 6.5% (%) 4.60 (2.15–9.17) 5.19 (1.68–13.47) 4.12 (1.33–10.82)  
  1. Values are mean ± SD and percentage (95% CI). Data were analyzed by χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for comparison of the rates of variables and by the Welch t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test for comparison of variables between males and females
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HT hypertension, Hb hemoglobin, SD standard deviation, CI confidential interval
  3. a5 participants refused measurement
  4. b≥ 140 mmHg SBP and/or ≥ 90 mmHg DBP in participants
  5. c10 participants could not be measured due to severe deformation of finger joint or machine troubles
  6. d14 participants could not be measured due to machine troubles