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Table 2 Summary of the studies on the nonvisual effects of the light intensity in the field of physiological anthropology published in the JPA from 1992 to 2018 (data from January to October were obtained in 2018)

From: A review of the studies on nonvisual lighting effects in the field of physiological anthropology

Author Year Condition Parameters measured
Lighting Others
Higuchi S, Watanuki S, Yasukouchi A, Sato M. [45] 1997 Luminance: 10, 100, 320, 1000, 1800 cd/m2
Color temperature: 2800 K
(tungsten lamp with diffuser and filters)
  ·CNV
·EEG
Park SJ, Tokura H. [33] 1998 Illuminance: 200, 5000 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 06:30–19:30
  ·Rectal temperature
Noguchi H, Sakaguchi T, Sato M. [46] 1999 Illuminance: 0.5, 1, 3, 10, 30 lx
Color temperature: 3000 K
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 2 min
·Subjects: young, elderly
·Time slots of experiment 09:00–10:30, 10:30–12:00, 13:00–14:30, 14:30–16:00, 16:00–17:30
·HRV·EEG
·Subjective evaluation (discomfort)
Kim HE, Tokura H. [51] 2000 Illuminance: 50, 3000 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 09:30–14:30
Air temp.: 30 to 15 °C during 15:00–17:00
Elderly subjects
·Rectal temperature
·Skin temperature
·Blood pressure
·Heart rate
·Dressing behavior
·Subjective evaluation (temperature sensation, thermal comfort)
Kanikowska D, Hirata Y, Hyun K, Tokura H. [34] 2001 Illuminance: 100, 3000 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 07:00–18:00
first and second days: 100 lx, third day 3000 lx
  ·Rectal temperature
·Melatonin
·C-reactive protein
·α1-antichymotrypsin
·Transferrin
·α2-macroglobulin
·Haptoglobin
·Ceruloplasmin
Wakamura T, Tokura H. [35] 2001 Illuminance: 3000 lx
Color temperature: 5000 K
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 10:00–15:00
Ambient light: 50–300 lx
Subjects, 7 hospitalized elderly patients ·Melatonin
·Bed time, get up time, time in bed, sleep start, sleep end, actual sleep time, immobile mins
Yokoi M, Aoki K, Shimomura Y, Iwanaga K, Katsuura T. [36] 2003 Illuminance: 120, 2800 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 21:00–04:30 during sleep deprivation
Stroop color-word conflict test ·Melatonin
·Rectal temperature
·Skin temperature
·EEG
·Subjective sleepiness
Tokura H, Kim HE. [52] 2005 Illuminance: 10, 4000 lx
Exposure time: 10:00–18:00
Illuminance: 10, 3000 lx
Exposure time: 16:00–23:00
Air temp.: 30 to 15 °C during 20:30–22:30
Air temp.: 30 to 15 °C during 21:00–22:00
·Dressing behavior
·Rectal temperature
·Skin temperature
·Melatonin
·Subjective evaluation (temperature sensation, thermal comfort)
Higuchi S, Motohashi Y, Maeda T, Ishibashi K. [37] 2005 Illuminance: 1000 lx during 2 h from 2 h before peak melatonin concentration   ·Melatonin
·Questionnaire (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire)
·Sleep diary (bedtime, rising time, sleep quality, etc.)
Yokoi M, Aoki K, Shimomura Y, Iwanaga K, Katsuura T. [38] 2006 Illuminance: 120, 2800 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 21:00–04:30 during sleep deprivation
Stroop color-word conflict test ·Melatonin
·Rectal temperature
·Blood pressure
·Heart rate
·HRV
·Task performance
Hyun KJ, Nishimura S, Tokura H. [39] 2006 Illuminance: 80, 5000 lx
Second day: 07:00–23:00 in 80 lx
Third day: 07:00–15:00 in 5000 lx, 15:00–23:00 in 80 lx
  ·Urine volume
·Creatinine clearance
Yasukouchi A, Hazama T, Kozaki T. [48] 2007 PLR measurement:
Illuminance: 1, 3, 30, 600 lx
5-min light exposure during 01:00–02:30
Melatonin measurement:
Illuminance: 0, 30, 600 lx
Exposure time: 01:00–02:30
Green (530 nm) (LED)
  ·PLR
·Melatonin
·Oral temperature
·Blood pressure
Hirota N, Sone Y, Tokura H. [40] 2010 Illuminance: 2000 lx
Exposure time: 07:00–15:00
Illuminance: 50, 2000 lx
Exposure time: 15:00–24:00
(fluorescent lamp)
  ·Breath hydrogen production (unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates)
Kozaki T, Toda N, Noguchi H, Yasukouchi A. [41] 2011 Illuminance: 750, 1500, 3000, 6000, 12,000 lx
Color temperature: 5000 K
(fluorescent lamp)
Exposure time: 09:00–12:00
  ·Melatonin (DLMO)
·aMT6s concentration
Yoshinaga N, Fujita M, Tanaka YL, Nemoto S. [47] 2011 Illuminance: 0, 50, 200 lx
Same, lowering and raising illuminance conditions
Exposure time: 2 min + 2 min
(fluorescent lamp)
Time zone of experiment: 11:00–17:00 ·Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)
·Subjective evaluation (pain)
Kakitsuba N, Mekjavic IB, Katsuura T. [49] 2011 Illuminance:
1050 lx in winter
510 lx in summer and winter
Color temperature: 5000 K
(fluorescent lamp)
·Exercise: cycle ergometer (50% maximum work)
·Maintained mean skin temperature at 28 °C by perfusing a water-perfused suit with water at 25 °C.
·Core interthreshold zone (CIZ)
·Rectal temperature
·Skin temperature
·Sweat rate
·Oxygen uptake
Fukushige H, Fukuda Y, Tanaka M, Inami K, Wada K, Tsumura Y, Kondo M, Harada T, Wakamura T, Morita T. [42] 2014 Illuminance: > 5000 lx (Bright), < 50 lx (Dim)
Exposure time: 07:30–18:00
Tryptophan intake:
Rich 476 mg
Poor 55 mg
Poor*dim, Poor*bright, Rich*dim, Rich*bright
·Melatonin (DLMO)
·Activity (sleep efficiency, sleep latency)
·Subjective estimation (sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worries, integrated sleep feeling, sleep initiation)
Kozaki T, Kubokawa A, Taketomi R, Hatae K. [43] 2015 ·Daytime
Illuminance: < 10, 100, 300, 900, 2700 lx
Exposure time: 09:00–12:00
·Nighttime
Illuminance: 300 lx
Exposure time: 01:00–02:30
(fluorescent lamp)
Color temperature: 4523 K
  ·Melatonin (DLMO)
Nagashima S, Yamashita M, Tojo C, Kondo M, Morita T, Wakamura T. [44] 2017 Illuminance: 50 lx (dim), 5000 lx (bright)
Exposure time: 07:00–18:00
TRP*bright, placebo*bright, TRP*dim, and placebo*dim
Tryptophan (TRP) intake at breakfast ·Melatonin (DLMO)
Schobersberger W, Blank C, Hanser F, Griesmacher A, Canazei M, Leichtfried V. [50] 2018 Illuminance:
5000 lx, 6500 K (bright light)
< 150 lx, 6500 K (office light)
Exposure time: 30 min (07:40–08:10)
(fluorescent lamp)
Sensorimotor and visuomotor performance tests ·6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s)
·Tryptophan
·Kynurenine
·Reaction times
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