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Table 2 Hazard ratios for mortality by an increase of height

From: Association of taller stature with lower cardiovascular disease mortality in Asian people: a systematic review

Ref. no. Sex Deaths (n) Hazard ratio 95% CI
Cardiovascular disease
 [19] Men 602a 0.93 0.86–1.02
  Women 1018a 0.89 0.84–0.95*
Coronary disease   
 [17] Men 649 0.99 0.91–1.06
Heart disease   
 [20] Men 1525b 0.96 0.92–1.00#
  Women 920b 0.98 0.91–1.04
Ischemic heart diseases   
 [16] Women 408 0.93 0.85–1.03
 [19] Men 63 0.97 0.84–1.13
  Women 90 0.92 0.80–1.06
Myocardial infarction   
 [20] Men 579 0.99 0.92–1.06
  Women 291 0.91 0.81–1.02
Stroke   
 [16] Women 1521 0.84 0.80–0.88*
 [17] Men 1263 0.93 0.88–0.98*
 [18] Men 158c 0.92 0.79–1.08
  Women 168c 0.77 0.64–0.91*
 [19] Men 104 0.88 0.78–1.00#
  Women 208 0.89 0.82–0.97*
Cerebrovascular disease   
 [20] Men 1133c 0.95 0.90–0.99*
  Women 758c 0.92 0.86–0.99*
Hemorrhagic stroke   
 [16] Women 502 0.83 0.76–0.91*
 [17] Men 636 0.88 0.82–0.96*
 [18] Men 37 0.85 0.62–1.16
  Women 26 1.05 0.70–1.55
 [20] Men 512 0.89 0.82–0.96*
  Women 410 0.87 0.76–0.99*
Ischemic stroke   
 [16] Women 323 0.82 0.73–0.91*
 [17] Men 262 0.98 0.87–1.10
 [18] Men 97 0.92 0.75–1.13
  Women 69 0.66 0.51–0.84*
 [20] Men 290 1.01 0.92–1.12
  Women 185 1.02 0.89–1.17
  1. CI confidence interval, NA not applicable
  2. P-value: * <0.05 (significance), # approximately 0.05 (marginal significance)
  3. aIncludes deaths from ischemic heart disease, stroke, and other circulatory diseases
  4. bIncludes deaths from myocardial infarction
  5. cIncludes deaths from ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and strokes of undetermined type