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Table 4 Associations between nutritional intake and MetS

From: The associations of eating behavior and dietary intake with metabolic syndrome in Japanese: Saku cohort baseline study

Men   Crude   Energy adjusted
MetS w/o MetS MetS w/o MetS
(n = 535) (n = 2067) (n = 535) (n = 2067)
Energy (kcal) 2350 ± 694 2387 ± 680    
Protein (g) 87.3 ± 32.1 90.3 ± 34.0 (g/1000 kcal) 37.7 ± 7.4 37.6 ± 7.3†
 Animal protein (g) 51.3 ± 24.6 52.7 ± 26.5 (g/1000 kcal) 21.6 ± 7.4 21.8 ± 7.5
 Plant protein (g) 36.0 ± 11.2 37.5 ± 11.5* (g/1000 kcal) 15.5 ± 2.7 15.8 ± 2.5*†
Fat (g) 61.4 ± 23.5 64.4 ± 24.4* (g/1000 kcal) 26.0 ± 6.3 26.8 ± 5.9*†
 Animal fat (g) 28.4 ± 12.9 30.0 ± 14.0* (g/1000 kcal) 11.9 ± 3.9 12.4 ± 4.0*†
 Plant fat (g) 33.0 ± 13.6 34.4 ± 13.7* (g/1000 kcal) 14.1 ± 4.3 14.4 ± 4.0
 Saturated fatty acid (g) 15.1 ± 6.2 16.1 ± 6.5* (g/1000 kcal) 6.4 ± 1.7 6.7 ± 1.8*†
 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) 3.7 ± 1.7 3.7 ± 1.7 (g/1000 kcal) 1.6 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.5
 n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) 12.5 ± 4.8 13.1 ± 5.0* (g/1000 kcal) 5.4 ± 1.5 5.5 ± 1.4*†
Carbohydrate (g) 302 ± 98 316 ± 96* (g/1000 kcal) 129 ± 22 133 ± 19*†
 Soluble dietary fiber (g) 3.8 ± 1.7 4.0 ± 1.8* (g/1000 kcal) 1.6 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 0.6†
 Insoluble dietary fiber (g) 11.1 ± 4.4 11.6 ± 4.5* (g/1000 kcal) 4.8 ± 1.5 4.9 ± 1.4†
 Total dietary fiber (g) 15.5 ± 6.3 16.2 ± 6.6* (g/1000 kcal) 6.7 ± 2.2 6.8 ± 2.1†
Sodium (mg) 5525 ± 1701 5514 ± 1687 (mg/1000 kcal) 2395 ± 505 2349 ± 490
 Salt equivalent (g) 13.9 ± 4.3 13.9 ± 4.3 (g/1000 kcal) 6.0 ± 1.3 5.9 ± 1.2
Potassium (mg) 3274 ± 1244 3407 ± 1297* (mg/1000 kcal) 1398 ± 376 1430 ± 371†
Calcium (mg) 683 ± 292 706 ± 299 (mg/1000 kcal) 291 ± 94 297 ± 95†
Magnesium (mg) 330 ± 114 339 ± 118 (mg/1000 kcal) 141 ± 29 142 ± 29†
Vitamin D (μg) 21.9 ± 15.3 21.6 ± 15.1 (μg/1000 kcal) 9.1 ± 5.0 8.8 ± 5.0
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.93 ± 0.33 0.97 ± 0.37* (mg/1000 kcal) 0.39 ± 0.09 0.41 ± 0.09*†
Vitamin B2 (mg) 1.64 ± 0.57 1.69 ± 0.62 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.70 ± 0.17 0.71 ± 0.18†
Women   Crude   Energy adjusted
MetS
(n = 113)
w/o MetS
(n = 1731)
MetS
(n = 113)
w/o MetS
(n = 1731)
Energy (kcal) 1880 ± 519 1937 ± 514    
Protein (g) 78.8 ± 27.5 80.6 ± 28.0 (g/1000 kcal) 41.9 ± 8.1 41.3 ± 7.5
 Animal protein (g) 47.3 ± 21.8 48.0 ± 22.0 (g/1000 kcal) 25.0 ± 8.3 24.4 ± 7.8
 Plant protein (g) 31.5 ± 8.8 32.6 ± 9.2 (g/1000 kcal) 16.9 ± 2.4 16.9 ± 2.4
Fat (g) 56.1 ± 21.1 59.1 ± 20.7 (g/1000 kcal) 29.4 ± 5.8 30.2 ± 5.5
 Animal fat (g) 26.4 ± 11.5 27.2 ± 11.4 (g/1000 kcal) 13.9 ± 4.0 13.9 ± 3.9
 Plant fat (g) 29.7 ± 12.2 31.9 ± 12.6 (g/1000 kcal) 15.6 ± 4.3 16.3 ± 4.4
 Saturated fatty acid (g) 14.4 ± 5.7 15.1 ± 5.6 (g/1000 kcal) 7.6 ± 1.7 7.7 ± 1.7
 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) 3.3 ± 1.5 3.4 ± 1.5 (g/1000 kcal) 1.7 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.5
 n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) 11.1 ± 4.3 11.6 ± 4.4 (g/1000 kcal) 5.8 ± 1.5 6.0 ± 1.5
Carbohydrate (g) 254 ± 69 260 ± 70 (g/1000 kcal) 136 ± 19 135 ± 17
 Soluble dietary fiber (g) 3.8 ± 1.4 4.1 ± 1.6 (g/1000 kcal) 2.1 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6†
 Insoluble dietary fiber (g) 11.2 ± 4.0 11.5 ± 4.3 (g/1000 kcal) 6.0 ± 1.5 6.0 ± 1.6
 Total dietary fiber (g) 15.7 ± 5.7 16.2 ± 6.1 (g/1000 kcal) 8.4 ± 2.2 8.3 ± 2.3
Sodium (mg) 4817 ± 1355 4788 ± 1444 (mg/1000 kcal) 2618 ± 534 2497 ± 497*
 Salt equivalent (g) 12.2 ± 3.4 12.1 ± 3.6 (g/1000 kcal) 6.6 ± 1.4 6.3 ± 1.3*
Potassium (mg) 3161 ± 1105 3327 ± 1189 (mg/1000 kcal) 1694 ± 406 1714 ± 410†
Calcium (mg) 664 ± 261 688 ± 276 (mg/1000 kcal) 355 ± 105 354 ± 102
Magnesium (mg) 300 ± 99 311 ± 104 (mg/1000 kcal) 161 ± 33 160 ± 32†
Vitamin D (μg) 20.8 ± 13.6 21.0 ± 14.0 (μg/1000 kcal) 10.9 ± 5.7 10.6 ± 5.8
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.90 ± 0.31 0.93 ± 0.31 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.48 ± 0.09 0.48 ± 0.09
Vitamin B2 (mg) 1.52 ± 0.50 1.56 ± 0.51 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.82 ± 0.19 0.80 ± 0.17
  1. Values are crude and energy-adjusted means ± SD. MetS metabolic syndrome, w/o without
  2. *Significant difference in crude or energy-adjusted nutrient intake (/1000 kcal) between in the subject with MetS and without MetS (p < 0.05)
  3. †Significant difference in energy-adjusted nutrient intake (/1000 kcal) between in the subject with MetS and without MetS adjusted by age (p < 0.05)