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Table 2 Spine, shoulder, and pelvis parameters: mean values, medians, tolerance ranges (upper and lower limits), and confidence intervals (left and right limits). Lines with gray background are non-parametrical data

From: Standard reference values of the upper body posture in healthy male adults aged between 31 and 40 years in Germany-an observational study

  Mean value/median Tolerance range
Lower limit
Tolerance range
Upper limit
Confidence interval
Left limit
Confidence interval
Right limit
Spine parameter
Trunk length D (mm)
Spatial distance between the markers C7 and middle of the PSIS-marker
473.95 414.18 533.72 468.03 479.87
Trunk length S (mm)
Spatial distance between the markers at C7 and Rima Ani
526.03 470.21 582 520.57 531.64
Sagittal trunk decline (°)
Inclination of the trunk length D marked line from the perpendicular to the sagittal plane
− 2.63 − 8.46 3.19 − 3.21 − 2.06
Frontal trunk decline (°)
Inclination of the trunk length D marked line from the perpendicular to the frontal plane
− 0.34 − 3.57 2.04 − 0.56 − 0.07
Axis decline (°)
Deviation of the line of the area marked by the trunk length D line of the 90 ° rotated distance between PSIS left and PSIS right
− 0.98 − 5.16 3.19 − 1.40 − 0.57
Thoracic bending angle (°)
Deviation of the distance C7 – Kyphosis Apex from the perpendicular
15.66 7.99 23.32 14.90 16.41
Lumbar bending angle (°)
Deviation of the distance Kyphosis Apex – Lordosis Apex from the perpendicular
10.99 5.49 16.50 10.45 11.54
Standard deviation lateral deviation (°)
Root mean squared deviation of the median line of the distance C7 – center of the PSIS marker
4.70 1.49 11.20 3.72 5.11
Standard deviation rotation (°)
Root mean square deviation of surface rotation of the median line (torsion of the spinous processes of the spine)
3.41 1.20 11.65 2.95 4.16
Kyphosis angle (°)
Angle between the upper turning point at C7 and the thoracolumbar inflection point
52.56 34.31 70.82 50.76 54.37
Lordosis angle (°)
Angle between the lower inflection point at the center of the PSIS marker and the thoracolumbar turning point
32.16 17.25 47.08 30.69 33.64
Shoulder parameter
Scapular distance (mm)
Distance between the left (AISL) and the lower right scapular angle (AISR)
185.45 138.28 232.63 180.78 190.12
Scapular height (°)
Height difference between the AISL and AISR points
− 4.35 − 17.76 10.25 − 5.14 − 2.37
scapular rotation (°)
Rotation of the distance AISL - AISR in the transversal plane
0.77 − 5.42 6.96 0.16 1.38
Left scapular angle (°)
Angle of the compensation line applied from the shoulders to the horizontal. The center of the compensation line is specified vertically above AISL
26.60 16.92 45.10 25.47 27.86
Right scapular angle (°)
Angle of the compensation line applied from the shoulders to the horizontal. The center of the compensation line is specified vertically above AISR
27.93 15.37 45.12 26.60 29.43
Pelvis parameter
Pelvic distance (mm)
Spatial distance between the left (PSISL) and right (PSISR) of the pelvis
127.42 92.85 162.00 124.00 130.85
Pelvic height (°)
Decline of the connecting line between PSIS left and PSIS right to the horizontal in the frontal plane in degrees
− 0.46 − 4.25 3.33 − 0.84 − 0.09
Pelvic height (mm)
Decline of the connecting line between PSIS left and PSIS right to the horizontal in the frontal plane in millimeter
− − 1.25 − 8.67 7.76 − 2.34 − 0.56
Pelvic torsion (°)
PSIS left – PSIS right, twist around the transverse axis calculated from the mutual twisting of the surface normal on the two PSIS
1.16 − 11.60 13.92 − 0.10 2.42
Pelvic rotation (°)
Rotation of the distance PSIS left – PSIS right in the transversal plane
0.32 − 7.11 7.75 − 0.42 1.06