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Table 1 Comparison between influenza positive and negative cases based on different variables

From: A 1-year cross-sectional study on the predominance of influenza among hospitalized children in a tropical area, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Predictors Influenza cases, N (%) Total Univariate logistic regression
Positive Negative Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Nasopharyngeal samples 66 (20.4) 257 (79.6) 323   
Age
< 12 months 9 (13.6) 68 (26.5) 77 1  
 1–5 years old 38 (57.6) 124 (48.2) 162 2.315 (1.057–5.074) 0.036
 > 5 years old 19 (28.8) 65 (25.3) 84 2.209 (0.932–5.234) 0.072
Gender
 Female 21 (31.8) 114 (44.4) 188 1  
 Male 45 (68.2) 143 (55.6) 135 1.708 (0.963–3.031) 0.067
Race
 Malay 6 (9.1) 9 (3.5) 15 1  
 Kadazan-Dusun 20 (30.3) 88 (34.2) 108 0.341 (0.109–1.067) 0.065
 Bajau 14 (21.2) 76 (29.6) 90 0.276 (0.085–0.899) 0.033
 Suluk 4 (6.1) 12 (4.7) 16 0.458 (0.147–1.430) 0.179
 Others 22 (33.3) 72 (28.0) 94 0.500 (0.108–2.314) 0.375
Parent’s education level
 Tertiary 26 (39.4) 80 (31.1) 106 1  
 Secondary 34 (51.5) 158 (61.5) 192 0.662 (0.372–1.179) 0.161
 Primary 3 (4.5) 11 (4.3) 14 0.839 (0.217–3.241) 0.799
 No formal education 3 (4.5) 8 (3.1) 11 1.154 (0.285–4.673) 0.841
District
 Kota Kinabalu 34 (51.5) 139 (54.1) 173 1  
 Penampang 14 (21.2) 68 (26.5) 82 0.842 (0.424–1.673) 0.623
 Others 18 (27.3) 50 (19.5) 68 1.472 (0.763–2.837) 0.249
House-Type
 Apartment / Flat 15 (22.7) 55 (21.4) 70 1  
 Semi-detached housea 40 (60.6) 146 (56.8) 186 1.005 (0.514–1.962) 0.989
 Others 11 (16.7) 56 (21.8) 67 0.720 (0.304–1.706) 0.456
Number of family members
 1–3 19 (28.8) 79 (30.7) 98 1  
 4–5 21 (31.8) 110 (42.8) 131 0.794 (0.400–1.574) 0.508
 6 and above 26 (39.4) 68 (26.5) 94 1.590 (0.810–3.121) 0.178
Contact history
 No 43 (65.2) 189 (73.5) 232 1  
 Yes 23 (34.8) 68 (26.5) 91 1.487 (0.835–2.648) 0.178
Schooling
 No 51 (77.3) 184 (71.6) 235 1  
 Yes 15 (22.7) 73 (28.4) 88 0.741 (0.392–1.401) 0.357
Pet at home
 No 31 (47.0) 154 (59.9) 185 1  
 Yes 35 (53.0) 103 (40.1) 138 1.688 (0.980–2.908) 0.059
Immunization status
 Completed 64 (97.0) 255 (99.2) 319 1  
 Not Completed 2 (3.0) 2 (0.8) 4 3.984 (0.551–28.830) 0.171
Influenza vaccination
 Yes 0 (0) 5 (1.9) 5 1  
 No 66 (100) 252 (98.1) 318 423,100,930.2 (0.00) 0.999
Breast feeding
 Yes 38 (57.6) 155 (60.3) 193 1  
 No 28 (42.4) 102 (39.7) 130 1.120 (0.647–1.938) 0.686
Underlying medical illness
 No 61 (92.4) 248 (96.5) 309 1  
 Yes 5 (7.6) 9 (3.5) 14 2.259 (0.731–6.982) 0.157
Cough
 Yes 64 (97.0) 252 (98.1) 316 0.635 (0.120–3.348) 0.592
 No 2 (3.0) 5 (1.9) 7 1  
Rhinitis
 Yes 62 (93.9) 251 (97.7) 313 0.371 (0.101–1.353) 0.133
 No 4 (6.1) 6 (2.3) 10 1  
Seizure
 Yes 10 (15.2) 11 (4.3) 21 3.994 (1.617–9.864) 0.003
 No 56 (84.8) 246 (95.7) 302 1  
Vomiting
 Yes 8 (12.1) 16 (6.2) 24 2.078 (0.848–5.089) 0.110
 No 58 (87.9) 241 (93.8) 299 1  
Diarrhea
 Yes 13 (19.7) 54 (21.0) 67 0.922 (0.469–1.814) 0.814
 No 53 (80.3) 203 (79.0) 256 1  
Child activity
 Not active 31 (47.0) 84 (32.7) 115 1.824 (1.053–3.159) 0.032
 Active 35 (53.0) 173 (67.3) 208 1  
Appetite
 Absent 10 (15.2) 36 (14.0) 46 1.096 (0.513–2.343) 0.813
 Present 56 (84.8) 221 (86.0) 277 1  
Sore throat
 Yes 7 (10.6) 18 (7.0) 25 1.575 (0.629–3.946) 0.332
 No 59 (89.4) 239 (93.0) 298 1  
Temperature on admission
 38 °C and below 9 (13.6) 51 (19.8) 60 1 0.014
 Above 38 °C 57 (86.4) 206 (80.2) 263 1.773 (1.125–2.795)  
  1. aA semi-detached house shares one common wall with its neighboring home, whereby its layout will be a mirror image of the other