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Table 3 Age-related changes in the displacement of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPap) during arm flexion, arm movement time, and the position of CoPap before arm movement

From: Age-related changes in the activation timing of postural muscles to the prime mover muscle for bilateral arm flexion during standing

Groups CoPap displacement (%FL) Movement time (ms) CoPap position before arm movement (%FL)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
3–4 years 9.15 (3.99)# 648.24 (84.83)# 39.69 (5.08)#c
5–6 years 8.61 (3.19)# 615.41 (91.06)# 39.05 (6.46)#c
7–8 years 7.94 (2.64)# 555.13 (89.21)a 39.25 (5.71)#c
9–10 years 6.74 (3.02)a 568.88 (67.28)a 41.29 (6.82)
11–12 years 7.32 (2.04)#a 544.37 (69.97)ab 44.33 (6.30)
13–14 years 7.26 (1.84)#a 559.35 (35.74)ab 41.18 (6.82)
Young adults 5.59 (1.94) 525.96 (75.65) 44.92 (4.63)
  1. Sharps indicate significant differences relative to adults. #p < 0.05. aIndicates a significant difference compared to 3–4 years (p < 0.05). bIndicates a significant difference compared to 5–6 years (p < 0.05). cIndicates a significant difference compared to 11–12 years (p < 0.05). FL Foot length