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Table 2 Characteristics of the distribution of the raw and numerically transformed salivary cortisol levels in healthy young male adults

From: Distribution characteristics of salivary cortisol measurements in a healthy young male population

  COR-raw (nmol/l) COR-log ln (nmol/l) COR-sqrt (nmol/l)
Mean 20.39 2.92 4.41
Median 19.31 2.94 4.37
SD 7.74 0.41 0.86
CV 38 % 14 % 20 %
95 % CI 7.59–39.59 1.99–3.67 2.72–6.28
Skewness 0.73 −0.63 0.12
Kurtosis 0.68 1.14 0.20
  1. The skewness and kurtosis of a normal distribution are both zero
  2. SD standard deviation, CV coefficient of variation (SD/mean), CI confidence interval, skewness parameter of symmetry, kurtosis parameter of peaked (positive) or flat (negative) distribution