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Table 2 The variables showed no normal distribution in Japanese schoolchildren in 1999 and 2009 (n = 233)

From: Decline in objective physical activity over a 10-year period in a Japanese elementary school

  1999 2009 Mann-Whitney Test
  Boys Girls Boys Girls
  Mean (SD) Median (5th and 95th percentiles) Mean (SD) Median (5th and 95th percentiles) Mean (SD) Median (5th and 95th percentiles) Mean (SD) Median (5th and 95th percentiles) Year Sex
  n = 62 n = 63 n = 56 n = 52  
Physical characteristics
 Weight kg 37.1 (6.3) 35.9 (29.1–51.5) 38.5 (6.7) 38.2 (28.8–53.0) 39.6 (8.3) 39.5 (27.5–57.4) 41.7 (7.4) 40.9 (31.4–57.3) 0.003 0.042
 BMI kg · m−2 17.4 (2.3) 16.7 (14.7–22.0) 17.7 (2.3) 17.4 (14.2–22.4) 18.0 (2.6) 17.8 (14.0–23.9) 18.5 (2.5) 18.3 (15.2–23.8) 0.024 0.125
Accelerometer output
 Step count step 20,832 (4694) 20,748 (14,277–30,806) 16,087 (4840) 15,720 (8336–25,330) 12,237 (2934) 12,014 (7492–18,324) 10,748 (2668) 11,226 (6278–14,824) <0.001 <0.001
 TEE kcal 2512 (381) 2434 (1977–3258) 2318 (398) 2268 (1652–3065) 2303 (383) 2337 (1677–3036) 2245 (285) 2234 (1765–2790) 0.011 0.012
 AEE kcal 805 (247) 744 (463–1309) 626 (213) 592 (332–1056) 408 (118) 408 (214–648) 367 (100) 391 (202–537) <0.001 0.002
Time spent performing specific activities
 Playing outdoor min 46 (36) 42 (0–114) 31 (29) 25 (0–81) 31 (33) 17 (0–109) 13 (14) 11 (0–47) <0.001 0.002
 Club activity min 26 (43) 16 (0–86) 28 (36) 13 (0–91) 28 (22) 25 (0–85) 15 (17) 16 (0–59) 0.473 0.086
 Video game min 29 (40) 13 (0–123) 8 (19) 0 (0–45) 29 (34) 22 (0–104) 24 (55) 6 (0–93) 0.011 <0.001
 Hobby min 13 (19) 5 (0–52) 17 (18) 13 (0–60) 9 (16) 2 (0–39) 20 (24) 12 (0–77) 0.406 0.001
 Studying min 62 (75) 39 (3–276) 66 (79) 36 (0–288) 46 (37) 38 (0–121) 46 (34) 36 (7–125) 0.606 0.884
 Awake time h:m 7:02 (20') 7:00 (6:30–7:40) 7:04 (27') 7:09 (5:59–7:44) 6:56 (30') 7:01 (5:54–7:42) 6:58 (31') 7:01 (6:00–7:37) 0.195 0.253
  1. BMI body mass index, TEE total energy expenditure, AEE activity energy expenditure; Significance was set at P < 0.05