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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for high levels of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) by Mt5178 C/A genotype and coffee consumption

From: Mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of coffee consumption on elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in male Japanese health check-up examinees: an exploratory cross-sectional study

Genotype and coffee consumption Frequency (%) OR (95 % CI) Adjusted ORa (95 % CI)
Normal levels of serum GGT High levels of serum GGT
  Serum GGT levels <60 U/L Serum GGT levels ≥60 U/L   
Mt5178C     
 <1 cup per day 69 (60.0) 46 (40.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 52 (65.8) 27 (34.2) 0.779 (0.429–1.414) 0.575 (0.280–1.177)
 ≥3 cups per day 43 (75.4) 14 (24.6) 0.488 (0.240–0.993)* 0.313 (0.110–0.640)**
    P for trend = 0.049 P for trend = 0.002
Mt5178A     
 <1 cup per day 41 (66.1) 21 (33.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 36 (52.9) 32 (47.1) 1.735 (0.854–3.528) 1.775 (0.775–4.066)
 ≥3 cups per day 27 (67.5) 13 (32.5) 0.940 (0.404–2.189) 0.838 (0.320–2.190)
    P for trend = 0.911 P for trend = 0.711
  Serum GGT levels ≤51 U/L Serum GGT levels >51 U/L   
Mt5178C     
 <1 cup per day 62 (53.9) 53 (46.1) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 48 (60.8) 31 (39.2) 0.756 (0.422–1.352) 0.569 (0.280–1.155)
 ≥3 cups per day 42 (73.7) 15 (26.3) 0.418 (0.209–0.837)* 0.231 (0.095–0.561)**
    P for trend = 0.015 P for trend < 0.001
Mt5178A     
 <1 cup per day 37 (59.7) 25 (40.3) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1–2 cups per day 32 (47.1) 36 (52.9) 1.665 (0.830–3.339) 1.709 (0.746–3.911)
 ≥3 cups per day 23 (57.5) 17 (42.5) 1.094 (0.488–2.450) 1.025 (0.412–2.549)
    P for trend = 0.673 P for trend = 0.988
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005
  2. aOR adjusted for age, body mass index, habitual alcohol consumption, habitual smoking, green tea consumption, antihypertensive treatment, and antidiabetic treatment