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Table 3 Summary of the studies on the nonvisual effects of monochromatic light in the field of physiological anthropology published in the JPA from 1992 to 2018 (data from January to October were obtained in 2018)

From: A review of the studies on nonvisual lighting effects in the field of physiological anthropology

Author Year Condition Parameters measured
Lighting Others
Morita T, Tokura H, Wakamura T, Park SJ, Teramoto Y. [53] 1997 Blue (435 nm), green (545 nm), red (610 nm)
Illuminance: 1000, 2500 lx
Control 50 lx (incandescent lamp)
Exposure time: 04:00–09:00
  ·Rectal temperature
Morita T, Tokura H. [54] 1998 Review on the influence of different wavelengths of light   ·Rectal temperature
Katsuura T, Yasuda T, Shimomura Y, Iwanaga K. [67] 2007 Red, blue
Illuminance: 310 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
Time zone of experiment: 10:00–18:00 ·Time production (90 s, 180 s)
·Event-related potential (P300)
·Subjective evaluation (sleepiness, tension, fatigue, comfort, concentration)
Yoto A, Katsuura T, Iwanaga K, Shimomura Y. [70] 2007 Red, green, blue (sheets of paper in A2 size)
Illuminance at surface of the color paper: 500 lx
Time zone of experiment: 10:00–17:00 ·EEG
·Blood pressure
·Subjective evaluation (lightness vs. heaviness, calm vs. excited, sleepy vs. not sleepy, cold vs. warm, etc.)
An M, Huang J, Shimomura Y, Katsuura T. [55] 2009 Blue (458 nm), green (550 nm)
Irradiance: 9.8 μW/cm2
(halogen lamp with interference filter)
Exposure time: daytime and nighttime (ca. 9.25 h before the respective averaged wake time) with 12 h out of phase each other
  ·Event-related potential (P300)
·Subjective evaluation (sleepiness)
Higuchi S, Fukuda T, Kozaki T, Takahashi M, Miura N. [56] 2011 Light source: ceiling light (500 lx)
Color temperature: 4200 K
(fluorescent lamp)
nonvisor cap (500 lx)
red-visor cap (ca. 160 lx)
blue-visor cap (ca. 160 lx)
Exposure time: 23:00–03:00
Psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) ·Melatonin·Reaction time, no. of lapses (PVT)·Subjective evaluations (sleepiness, brightness)
Fukuda Y, Higuchi S, Yasukouchi A, Morita T. [68] 2012 468, 508, 593, 633 nm (LED)
Masking-cone stimuli: 2000 ms (20 Hz)
Test stimulus (mRGC or cone): 250 ms
  ·Electroretinogram (ERG)
Katsuura T, Ochiai Y, Senoo T, Lee S, Takahashi Y, Shimomura Y. [58] 2012 Blue (471, 467 nm), white (color temperature 3034 K)
Irradiance: 12 μW/cm2
  ·Pupillary constriction
·Subjective evaluation (bluish, sleepiness)
Kakitsuba N, Mekjavic IB, Katsuura T. [69] 2013 Blue (436 nm), red (612 nm)
Illuminance: 500, 1000 lx
White (color temperature 5000 K)
Illuminance: 1000 lx
(fluorescent lamp)
·Exercise: cycle ergometer (50% maximum work)
·Maintained mean skin temperature at 28 °C by perfusing a water-perfused suit with water at 25 °C.
·Summer and winter
·Time zone of experiment 11:00–15:00
·Core interthreshold zone (CIZ)
·Rectal temperature
·Skin temperature
·Sweat rate
·Oxygen uptake
Lee SI, Hida A, Tsujimura S, Morita T, Mishima K, Higuchi S. [59] 2013 Blue (465 nm), green (536 nm), red (632 nm)
Intensity: 12, 13, 14, 14.5 and 15 log photons/cm2 s
Time zone of experiment: 10:00–17:00 ·Pupil size
·Melanopsin gene of single nucleotide polymorphism of rs1079610 (I394T):TT, TC, CC
Lee S, Ishibashi S, Shimomura Y, Katsuura T. [60] 2016 Blue (470 nm), green (532 nm)
Irradiance: 10, 15, 20 μW/cm2
Pulse width: 1 ms (LED)
Blue, green, blue + green
Time zone of experiment: 09:00–12:00, 13:00–16:00 ·Pupillary constriction
·Subjective evaluation (sleepiness)
Yuda E, Ogasawara H, Yoshida Y, Hayano J. [64] 2016 Blue (10, 5, 2 lx)
Green (71 lx)
Red (39 lx)
Time zone of experiment: 08:30–13:00 ·Heart rate·HRV
Yuda E, Ogasawara H, Yoshida Y, Hayano J. [65] 2017 Blue (483 nm, 13 lx)
Green (555 nm, 91 lx)
White (158 lx)
Exposure time: 10 min + 5 min PVT under white fluorescent light (illuminance, 300 lx)
Psychomotor vigilance test (PVT)
Time zone of experiment: 09:30–14:00
·Heart rate·HRV·Reaction time, minor lapse (PVT)
Dai Q, Uchiyama Y, Lee S, Shimomura Y, Katsuura T. [61] 2017 Blue (467 nm)
Irradiance: 7.5, 15, 30 μW/cm2
Pulse width: 50, 100, 200 μs
White (color temperature 2878 K, 14.75 μW/cm2) (LED)
Exposure time: 12 min
  ·Pupillary constriction
·Subjective evaluation (concentration, sleepiness, perception of blueness)
Yuda E, Ogasawara H, Yoshida Y, Hayano J. [66] 2017 Blue (485 nm, 8.02 μW/cm2)
Orange (622 nm, 6.54 μW/cm2)
Exposure time: 30 min during lunch break
5 min of PVT under white fluorescent light (color temperature 4010 K, illuminance 450 lx)
Psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) ·Heart rate
·Reaction time, minor lapse (PVT)
Lee S, Muto N, Shimomura Y, Katsuura T. [62] 2017 Blue (466 nm)
Green (527 nm)
Irradiance: 20 μW/cm2
Pulse width: 1 ms
Inter-stimulus interval: 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ms
  ·Pupillary constriction
Lee S, Uchiyama Y, Shimomura Y, Katsuura T. [63] 2017 Blue (464 nm)
Green (526 nm)
Pulse width: 2.5 ms
Photon density: 15.2 log photons/cm2/s
Blue, green, blue + green
  ·Electroretinogram (ERG)
·Visual evoked potential
·Pupillary constriction
·Subjective evaluations (bluish, greenish)
Kozaki T, Hidaka Y, Takakura JY, Kusano Y. [57] 2018 Blue (465 nm)
Irradiance: 52 μW/cm2
100-Hz flickering (10% duty tatio)
non-flickering light
Dim (< 3 lx)
Exposure time: 01:00–02:30
  1. LED light-emitting diode, OLED organic light-emitting diode