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Table 3 Comparison of parameters of upper body posture and “BMI,” coding of effect size of eta2: 1 = 0.01 small effect, 2 = 0.06 medium effect, 3 = 0.14 large effect. Significant p values in bold, shaded gray, and marked with an asterisk

From: Standard reference values of the upper body posture in healthy male adults aged between 31 and 40 years in Germany-an observational study

BMI
(kg/m2)
Parameter   1. Group normal
n = 12
2. Group pre-adipose
n = 72
3. Group obese
n = 17
p value eta2 Med. Min./Max. Med. Min./Max. Med. Min./Max.
Spine parameter
 Trunk length D (mm) 0.01* 0.10 2 457.85 421.22/510.19 482.71 416.43/555.56 467.66 405.02/539.99
 Trunk length S (mm) 0.07 0.05 1 503.63 470.40/554.39 529.55 479.19/597.88 519.96 467.23/606.26
 Sagittal trunk decline (°) 0.01* 0.10 2 − 1.29 − 4.96/6.40 − 2.84 − 8.70 /3.75 − 5.55 − 7.67/1.78
 Frontal trunk decline (°) 0.26 0.03 1 − 0.81 − 4.22/2.73 − 0.25 − 2.80/2.65 − 0.49 − 3.82/1.22
 Axis decline (°) 0.44 0.02 1 − 2.04 − 4.42/2.63 − 0.97 − 5.42/4.10 − 0.84 − 4.07/2.22
 Thoracic bending angle (°) 0.56 0.01 1 16.16 6.18/20.22 15.49 5.84/27.92 17.15 9.14/21.32
 Lumar bending angle (°) 0.71 0.01 1 11.71 6.31/18.40 11.14 5.48/19.21 10.77 7.86/14.47
 Standard deviation Lateral deviation (°) 0.60 0.01 1 4.77 2.12/11.89 4.71 1.21/10.66 4.55 1.44/11.60
 Standard deviation Rotation (°) 0.07 0.05 1 3.69 1.09/8.47 3.79 1.40/15.94 2.22 0.73/8.49
Kyphosis angle (°) 0.28 0.03 1 52.86 35.97/71.59 51.14 32.30/78.58 55.56 37.52/66.87
Lordosis angle (°) 0.31 0.02 1 27.96 18.07/39.52 32.08 19.29/56.34 31.76 19.06/47.54
Pelvis parameter
 Pelvic distance (mm) 0.01* 0.11 2 127.25 102.83/156.56 124.97 82.48/169.19 137.84 113.16/174.12
 Pelvic height (°) 0.79 0.01 1 − 0.45 − 3.86/1.63 − 0.65 − 4.90/4.21 − 0.40 − 2.72/2.51
 Pelvic height (mm) 0.79 0.01 1 − 0.96 − 9.19/4.44 − 1.55 − 9.46/10.51 − 0.84 − 6.70/5.72
 Pelvic torsion (°) 0.99 0.001 1 2.47 − 10.53/5.93 1.69 − 15.99/20.61 1.60 − 15.90/16.70
 Pelvic rotation (°) 0.14 0.04 1 − 0.55 − 7.03/6.16 0.91 − 8.52/14.02 − 0.19 − 6.55/2.56
Shoulder parameter
 Scapular distance (mm) 0.01* 0.10 2 174.93 128.67/205.27 184.57 118.17/233.93 205.72 158.31/248.18
 Scapular height (°) 0.69 0.01 1 − 6.03 − 15.27/10.36 − 4.05 − 19.79/12.02 − 5.05 − 11.32/14.39
 Scapular rotation (°) 0.20 0.03 1 0.40 − 3.37/6.71 1.07 − 5.43/8.16 − 0.13 − 6.41/6.60
 Left scapular angle (°) 0.02* 0.08 2 29.94 26.12/35.94 26.31 16.92/51.09 25.83 11.18/71.23
 Right scapular angle (°) 0.01* 0.09 2 31.70 26.09/57.99 28.08 15.64/50.10 25.04 12.85/34.33