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Table 2 Studies on the effects of JSB on sleep

From: A review of Japanese-style bathing: its demerits and merits

Author (year) Subjects Bathing Time Before bedtime Sleep assessment Tc (°C) Ta (°C) Research objective
N Age (SD) Tw (°C) Duration (min) Body site
Horne and Shackll (1987) [71] 3M, 3F 21–33 41.0 30 Mid-thorax 5.3 h PSG, Tc, SS 2 Timing
   41.0 30 2.3 h 2   
Dowdell and Javaheri (1992) [79] 7M 59.0 (4.5) 41.0 30 Upper- chest 2.5 h PSG 2 19.5 Apnea/hypopnea
Dorsey et al. (1996) [80] 9F 65.1 (3.3) 40.3 30 Mid-thorax 1.5 h PSG, Act, Tc, SS 0.9 Water temperature
9F 38.0 30 1.5 h 0.2  
Dorsey et al. (1999) [81] 14F 60–73 40.3 30 Mid-thorax 1.75–2 h PSG, Tc 0.7 Insomnia
Kanda et al. (1999) [54] 10M, 20F 20.5 (0.2) 40.7 10- Neck 0.5h– BM, Tc, SS 0.7 8–12 Field study
13M, 17F 73.2 (0.9) 40.2 10- Neck 0.5 h– 0.6   
Sung and Tochihara (2000) [55] 9F 21–40 40.0 20 Shoulder 0.5 h PSG, BM, Tc, SS 1 10 Footbath
9F 21–40 42.0 30 Knee 0.5 h 0 10  
Sung et al. (2000) [82] 8M 22.0 (3.0) 40.0 20 Shoulder 0.3 h PSG, BM, Tc, SS 0.9 10 Timing
8M 40.0 20 Shoulder 1.5 h 0.8 10  
Mishima et al. (2005) [56] 2M, 1F 76.9 40.0 30 Mid-thorax 2.0 h DLMO, Act Tc, HRV 0.8 24 Dementia
Inagaki et al. (2007) [83] 6F 21.6 (0.6) 40.0 10 Neck 0.5 h PSG, HRV Tc, SS 0.5 27 Timing
6F 40.0 10 Neck 1.0 h 0.4 27  
6F 40 10 Neck 2.0 h 0.4 27  
  1. N number, M male, F female, SD standard deviation, Tw water temperature, PSG polysomnography, Act actigraphy, Tc core body temperature, BM body movement, SS subjective sleep sensation, HRV heart rate variability, DLMO dim-light melatonin-onset time, Ta air temperature
  2. All studies except that of Inagaki et al. [83] involved experiments without the bathing (baseline nights) assigned as the control
  3. Bold data is not JSB