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Table 2 Starting time of the postural muscles in each age groups

From: Age-related changes in the activation timing of postural muscles to the prime mover muscle for bilateral arm flexion during standing

Groups RA (ms) ES (ms) RF (ms) BF (ms) TA (ms) GcM (ms) SOL (ms)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
3–4 years 37.89 (20.99)† 1.88 (23.72)# 37.70 (33.12)† 41.40 (22.20)# † 6.46 (38.55) 46.40 (23.81)† 55.22 (20.87)†
5–6 years 33.94 (25.94)† −7.45 (16.23)#† 42.88 (34.09)† 37.90 (25.82)#† 8.72 (37.22) 46.60 (21.75)† 57.62 (20.65)†
7–8 years 40.78 (17.51)† −10.4 (18.39)#† 52.36 (22.40)† 15.24 (24.14)#† 39.12 (26.33)† 47.89 (21.63)† 50.11 (21.27)†
9–10 years 34.42 (20.21)† −14.06 (13.01)#† 49.55 (23.75)† 14.89 (22.36)#† 42.97 (28.72)† 50.32 (14.23)† 53.95 (19.21)†
11–12 years 20.90 (29.57)† −15.13 (10.60)#† 40.88 (26.21)† 15.25 (22.49)#† 46.38 (25.88)† 48.74 (21.50)† 46.93 (19.24)†
13–14 years 26.80 (14.18)† −19.21 (14.12)† 16.28 (29.66) 6.36 (20.33)# 42.05 (27.95)† 49.22 (20.15)† 44.72 (19.74)†
Young adults - −27.44 (11.57)† - −13.18 (17.81)† - 36.07 (25.23)† 36.67 (19.50)†
  1. RA Rectus abdominis, ES Erector spinae, RF Rectus femoris, BF Biceps femoris, TA Tibialis anterior, GcM Gastrocnemius medialis, SOL Soleus
  2. The starting time for RA, RF, and TA in adults was not included in this analysis because the activation rate was very low (< 10%). Daggers indicate significant differences relative to the burst onset of the deltoid anterior. †p < 0.05. Sharps indicate significant differences relative to adults. #p < 0.05