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Table 1 Measurement positions and measurement sites for trunk muscles

From: Association between walking ability and trunk and lower-limb muscle atrophy in institutionalized elderly women: a longitudinal pilot study

Muscles Positions Measurement sites
Rectus abdominis Supine 3 cm lateral to the umbilicus
External oblique Supine 2.5 cm anterior to the mid-axillary line, at the midpoint between the inferior rib and the iliac crest
Internal oblique Supine 2.5 cm anterior to the mid-axillary line, at the midpoint between the inferior rib and the iliac crest
Transversus abdominis Supine 2.5 cm anterior to the mid-axillary line, at the midpoint between the inferior rib and the iliac crest
Erector spinae Prone 7 cm lateral to the L3 spinous process
Lumbar multifidus Prone 2 cm lateral to the L4 spinous process
Psoas major Prone 7 cm lateral from the L3 spinous process