Dupont AC, Sauerbrei EE, Fenton PV, Shragge PC, Loeb GE, Richmond FJ. Real-time sonography to estimate muscle thickness: comparison with MRI and CT. J Clin Ultrasound. 2001;29:230–6.
Fukunaga T, Miyatani M, Tachi M, Kouzaki M, Kawakami Y, Kanehisa H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. 2001;172:249–55.
Miyatani M, Kanehisa H, Ito M, Kawakami Y, Fukunaga T. The accuracy of volume estimates using ultrasound muscle thickness measurements in different muscle groups. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;91:264–72.
Sanada K, Kearns C, Midorikawa T, Abe T. Prediction and validation of total and regional skeletal muscle mass by ultrasound in Japanese adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;96:24–31.
Heymsfield SB, Gonzalez MC, Lu J, Jia G, Zheng J. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia. Proc Nutr Soc. 2015;8:1–12.
Kubo K, Kanehisa H, Azuma K, Ishizu M, Kuno SY, Okada M, et al. Muscle architectural characteristics in women aged 20–79 years. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:39–44.
Ikezoe T, Mori N, Nakamura M, Ichihashi N. Age-related muscle atrophy in the lower extremities and daily physical activity in elderly women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011;53:e153–7.
Rankin G, Stokes M, Newham DJ. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry in normal subjects. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:320–6.
Kanehisa H, Miyatani M, Azuma K, Kuno S, Fukunaga T. Influences of age and sex on abdominal muscle and subcutaneous fat thickness. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;91:534–7.
Ota M, Ikezoe T, Kaneoka K, Ichihashi N. Age-related changes in the thickness of the deep and superficial abdominal muscles in women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;55:e26–30.
Ikezoe T, Mori N, Nakamura M, Ichihashi N. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:43–8.
Milte R, Crotty M. Musculoskeletal health, frailty and functional decline. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2014;28:395–410.
Cruz Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Schneider SM, Zúñiga C, Arai H, Boirie Y, et al. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age Ageing. 2014;43:748–59.
Ikezoe T, Mori N, Nakamura M, Ichihashi N. Atrophy of the lower limbs in elderly women: is it related to walking ability? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:989–95.
Ikezoe T, Asakawa Y, Shima H, Kishibuchi K, Ichihashi N. Daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in institutionalized elderly women: an exploratory study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013;57:221–5.
Hebert JJ, Koppenhaver SL, Parent EC, Fritz JM. A systematic review of the reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging for the quantitative assessment of the abdominal and lumbar trunk muscles. Spine. 2009;34:E848–56.
Koppenhaver SL, Hebert JJ, Fritz JM, Parent EC, Teyhen DS, Magel JS. Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:87–94.
Stokes M, Hides J, Elliott J, Kiesel K, Hodges P. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the posterior paraspinal muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:581–95.
Wallwork TL, Hides JA, Stanton WR. Intrarater and interrater reliability of assessment of lumbar multifidus muscle thickness using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:608–12.
Ainscough-Potts AM, Morrissey MC, Critchley D. The response of the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles to different postures. Man Ther. 2006;11:54–60.
De Troyer A, Estenne M, Ninane V, Van Gansbeke D, Gorini M. Transversus abdominis muscle function in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1990;68:1010–6.
Misuri G, Colagrande S, Gorini M, Iandelli I, Mancini M, Duranti R, et al. In vivo ultrasound assessment of respiratory function of abdominal muscles in normal subjects. Eur Respir J. 1997;10:2861–7.
Blazevich AJ, Gill ND, Zhou S. Intra- and intermuscular variation in human quadriceps femoris architecture assessed in vivo. J Anat. 2006;209:289–310.
Kellis E, Galanis N, Natsis K, Kapetanos G. Validity of architectural properties of the hamstring muscles: correlation of ultrasound findings with cadaveric dissection. J Biomech. 2009;42(15):2549–54. 13.
Thoirs K, English C. Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness: intra-examiner reliability and influence of body position. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009;29:440–6.
Maganaris CN, Baltzopoulos V, Sargeant AJ. In vivo measurements of the triceps surae complex architecture in man: implications for muscle function. J Physiol. 1998;512:603–14.
Doherty TJ, Vandervoort AA, Brown WF. Effects of ageing on the motor unit: a brief review. Can J Appl Physiol. 1993;18:331–58.
Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci. 1988;84:275–94.
Roos MR, Rice CL, Vandervoort AA. Age-related changes in motor unit function. Muscle Nerve. 1997;20:679–90.
Ferrando AA, Stuart CA, Brunder DG, Hillman GR. Magnetic resonance imaging quantitation of changes in muscle volume during 7 days of strict bed rest. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995;66:976–81.
Akima H, Kuno S, Suzuki Y, Gunji A, Fukunaga T. Effects of 20 days of bed rest on physiological cross-sectional area of human thigh and leg muscles evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. J Gravit Physiol. 1997;4:S15–21.
Berg HE, Larsson L, Tesch PA. Lower limb skeletal muscle function after 6 wk of bed rest. J Appl Physiol. 1997;82:182–8.
Erskine RM, Jones DA, Maganaris CN, Degens H. In vivo specific tension of the human quadriceps femoris muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:827–38.
Wilson NA, Sheehan FT. Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components. J Biomech. 2009;42:1891–7.