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Table 4 Changes in muscle thicknesses between baseline and 12 months later

From: Association between walking ability and trunk and lower-limb muscle atrophy in institutionalized elderly women: a longitudinal pilot study

Muscles Baseline (mm) 12 months later (mm) Percent change (%)
Rectus abdominis 6.2 ± 1.9 6.1 ± 1.9 0.4 ± 16.4
External oblique 4.9 ± 1.2 4.9 ± 1.5 1.6 ± 22.5
Internal oblique 7.1 ± 2.0 6.8 ± 2.5 −1.1 ± 33.1
Transversus abdominis 3.2 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1 0.8 ± 23.3
Erector spinae 26.6 ± 6.4 21.9 ± 5.7* −12.0 ± 35.6
Lumbar multifidus 26.8 ± 5.8 26.3 ± 6.3 1.1 ± 25.6
Psoas major 13.7 ± 5.2 11.6 ± 3.1 −5.4 ± 35.7
Gluteus maximus 15.3 ± 4.0 14.8 ± 4.8 −1.7 ± 23.4
Gluteus medius 15.5 ± 4.4 15.2 ± 5.0 −0.1 ± 27.2
Gluteus minimus 12.3 ± 3.9 12.3 ± 4.0 1.6 ± 30.2
Rectus femoris 16.5 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 4.2** −28.3 ± 25.0
Vastus lateralis 13.2 ± 3.9 10.6 ± 3.4** −17.3 ± 25.2
Vastus intermedius 10.8 ± 3.1 8.4 ± 2.8** −19.8 ± 22.9
Biceps femoris 18.3 ± 4.6 17.3 ± 5.5 −2.6 ± 30.8
Gastrocnemius 11.3 ± 3.3 10.9 ± 2.4 1.8 ± 26.4
Soleus 29.3 ± 6.8 28.3 ± 5.5 −0.6 ± 20.8
Tibialis anterior 21.8 ± 3.1 18.7 ± 2.5** −12.8 ± 14.0
  1. *p < 0.05 compared with baseline; **p < 0.01 compared with baseline