- Original article
- Open Access
Determining total energy expenditure in 3–6-year-old Japanese pre-school children using the doubly labeled water method
Journal of Physiological Anthropology volume 41, Article number: 28 (2022)
The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method for calculating the total production of CO2 over several days is currently considered to be the most accurate technique for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), and the results obtained using this method have been used to review energy requirements. Presently, there is limited data available on TEE in Japanese children. The objective of this study was to assess the TEE in pre-school Japanese children using the DLW method. We used a cross-sectional population of 140 children (69 boys and 71 girls) aged 3–6 years. TEE was measured using the DLW method over 8 days under free-living conditions. The average weights (kg) of the boys and girls were 15.6 ± 2.5 and 15.0 ± 2.1 for the 3–4 years old and 19.8 ± 3.8 and 19.6 ± 2.7 for the 5–6 years old, respectively. The corresponding TEE (kcal/day) was 1260.9 ± 357.8 and 1265.2 ± 408.0, and 1682.3 ± 489.0 and 1693.1 ± 473.3, respectively, showing a significant difference with respect to age. Furthermore, TEE per body weight (kcal/kg/day) was 83.2 ± 29.2 and 84.9 ± 26.6, and 85.4 ± 23.2 and 86.7 ± 22.6, respectively. However, when TEE was adjusted for body weight or fat-free mass, there were no age or sex differences. We conclude that in Japanese children, TEE in those aged 3–4 years was similar to the current Ministry of Health recommendations. However, TEE in children aged 5–6 years was slightly higher than the recommendations. Based on these findings, the present results obtained from a large number of participants will provide valuable reference data for Japanese children.
Childhood obesity is becoming a serious public health issue worldwide, and it is an important determinant of obesity risk [1, 2]. Worldwide, 40 million children are overweight and obesity around the world has seen an increase of 10 million since 2000 .
The societal factors that contribute to higher rates of obesity include extreme and rapid changes in lifestyle, physical activity, and diet that accompany urbanization and rapid economic development. In other words, increased television viewing and decreased exercise time have led to a static lifestyle; furthermore, high-fat food intake has increased . Physically active children have lower adiposity, more favorable lipid profiles (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level), and increased cognitive function compared to their inactive counterparts . Energy deficiency due to poor nutrient intake may cause stunted growth in children and increase their susceptibility to disease. There are approximately 149 million children over the age of five suffering from stunting worldwide .
Therefore, assessment of total energy expenditure (TEE) is an essential component of clinical nutrition in children , and TEE data can provide information on energy requirements. This is based on the concept that daily energy intake should be equivalent to the total daily energy expenditure to maintain energy balance. The energy requirements of children are defined as the amount of food energy needed to balance TEE at a desirable level of physical activity and to support optimal growth and development [7, 8].
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method can measure TEE in a cumulative and non-invasive manner over a long period of time. It is considered to be the most accurate method of assessment because measuring TEE in an unrestricted activity environment (free-living environment) is an important factor when targeting children . This method has the advantage of being easy to use in field studies, as the procedure requires only urine and/or saliva sampling following the administration of the isotopes. Therefore, it is possible to know the total energy expenditure by measuring it over several days of daily life. The DLW method has been shown to be able to calculate TEE with an accuracy of 1–3% and a precision of 2–8% of the estimated value . Therefore, it is a very effective method for calculating the energy expenditure of young children who have difficulty limiting their activities for certain periods of time. Most of the data on TEE using the DLW method have been obtained from Caucasian children [7, 8] with limited data available for Asian and Japanese children probably because the costs associated with these measurements are high, and data collection and analyses is time-consuming [6, 10].
Most studies conducted worldwide have used the DLW technique to calculate TEE data with a small number of participants. As shown in previous studies , energy expenditure studies in large populations require data to be collected from various geographical regions and a diverse socioeconomic background with a large number of participants. For studies on children, it is essential to collect data in early childhood, which is particularly difficult. The purpose of the present study was to determine the reference values of TEE in 3- to 6-year-old pre-school Japanese children in a large population and compare them with those observed in previous studies.
Healthy Japanese children were enrolled for the body composition reference study from kindergartens in Miyazaki and Iwate prefectures in Japan. Informed consent was provided by the parents before commencement of the measurements. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 140 participants (69 boys and 71 girls) aged 3–6 years. Twelve participants were excluded from the study because they were either absent for urine collection or could not fully ingest the DLW. Data for those who skipped the measurement or those with incomplete data were excluded from the analyses. All data were obtained between 2009 and 2017. Although the data in this study were measured over a long period of time, the Japanese Association for Human Auxology stated that “it is appropriate to continue to use the reference values calculated from the anthropometric data published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 2000 as standard values when evaluating the anthropometric status of Japanese children” . Therefore, our study was based on the idea that the body size of Japanese children did not change significantly during this period. This study was conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research, and the Act on the Protection of Personal Information. This study received ethical approval from the research ethics committee of Aichi University of Education, Japan.
All measurements were performed in a room at approximately 23 °C, with the participants wearing thin undergarments. During the measurement of the TEE, weight was measured to the nearest 0.02 kg using a balance beam scale and height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight (kg) by height squared (m2). Body composition was estimated using a 2-component model. Impedance was determined using a four-terminal impedance analyzer (TP-95 K, Toyo Physical, Japan). Each subject wore garments with no shoes or socks and laid supine on a bed with their limbs extended away from the trunk of their body. After cleaning all skin contact areas with alcohol, current electrodes (Red Dot-2330; 3 M Health Care, USA) were placed on the dorsal surfaces of the right hand and right foot at the distal metacarpals and metatarsals, respectively. Detector electrodes were also applied at the right pisiform prominences of the wrist and between the medial and lateral malleoli at the ankle. This bioelectrical impedance analyzer generated an excitation current of 500 mA at a single frequency of 50 kHz. Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated using the equation of Kushner et al.  and the total body water (TBW) component (hydration) of FFM . Fat mass (FM) was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. The FFM index (FFMI) and FM index (FMI) were calculated by dividing each of the BMI components, FFM and FM, by height2 (BMI = FFM, kg/height, m2 + FM, kg/height, m2). These two component indices are known as the FFMI and FMI, both of which are discrete and adjusted for body size.
TEE was measured using the DLW method, as previously described, for 8 consecutive days. Figure 1 shows the basic theory of the DLW method. A known amount of water of known concentration (DLW, 2H218O) is administered orally. The two isotopes equilibrate with TBW within a few hours and then are eliminated differentially from the body. 18O is eliminated from the body as water (H218O) in urine, sweat, and body water vapor in exhaled breath. In addition, it is also eliminated as carbon dioxide (C18O2) in exhaled gas. However, 2H is eliminated from the body only as water (2H2O). The principle is that the resulting difference in the emission rates (or turnover rate) of the two isotopes can be used to determine the emission rate of carbon dioxide. After an overnight fast, baseline urine samples were collected from each participant, and DLW was administered orally. The dose of 0.05 g/kg estimated TBW of 2H (99.9 atom %) and 0.25 g/kg estimated TBW of 18O (10.0 atom %). The urine sample was collected at 3 h following administration (after 3-h equilibration) and on the morning of day 1, day 4, and day 8 after ingestion of DLW, which were used to measure the elimination rates of 2H and 18O. Each urine sample was collected and stored at − 80 °C until they were analyzed. All samples were analyzed using equipment installed at Nippon Sport Science University, Japan. The gas samples were analyzed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, IsoPrime, Micromass UK Ltd., UK). The gas samples for IRMS were prepared by equilibrating the urine sample with the particular gas to be analyzed. The 2H analysis was completed using standard hydrogen gas over a platinum catalyst. 18O analysis was performed using gas IRMS with carbon dioxide. These isotope ratio measurements were expressed as delta (δ) per mil (parts per 1000 or ‰). The isotopic ratios were then normalized against the international water standard, Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water (V-SMOW). The average standards for the analysis were 1.68 ‰ for 2H and 0.07 ‰ for 18O. TEE was expressed as the mean TEE per day during the study period. TEE was calculated using the following equations: TBW (L) = [(Dose × 99.8/20) (18.02/Ne (d2H)]/1.041 by the method of Schoeller et al. , where Dose is the dose of 2H2O, Ne is the ratio of 2H/1H in the standard, and d2H is the variance of the 2H enrichment before and after administration of isotopes for the participants. rCO2 (mol/d) = 0.4556 TBW (1.007 ko to 1.041 kh) was also determined by the Schoeller et al. method , where ko and kh are the elimination rates of 18O and 2H, respectively. TEE (kcal/day) = 22.4 [3.941 (rCO2/RQ) + 1.106 (rCO2)] was calculated by the Weir et al. method .
The statistical analysis program SPSS ver. 27 (IBM, Japan) was used for the statistical analysis. The results were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). We conducted a t-test for sex difference (Tables 1 and 2). Differences in the simple main effect between sex and age groups were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Post hoc tests were not performed for comparisons between sex and age groups because of each two groups (Tables 3 and 4). Moreover, correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to determine the relationship between TEE and each anthropometric measurement (Table 5). Statistical differences were considered significant at p values less than 0.05. We structured and checked our paper using “STROBE Statement-Checklist of cross-sectional studies” .
Table 1 shows sex-wise physical characteristics and body composition of the participants. There were no differences between the two sexes in terms of physical characteristics such as age, height, and weight, but girls showed significant differences in FM, %FM, and FMI. Contrarily, FFMI values were significantly high in boys. Table 2 shows sex-wise absolute and relative TEE values. There was no difference observed between the two sexes. TEE was 1535.7 ± 448.8 and 1572.5 ± 492.7 kcal/day for boys and girls, respectively. TEE per body weight was 84.65 ± 25.23 and 86.16 ± 23.62 kcal/kg/day, respectively, for boys and girls; TEE per FFM was 104.96 ± 31.76 kcal/kg/day for boys and 112.92 ± 29.87 kcal/kg/day for girls.
Table 3 shows the physical characteristics and body composition of the participants shown in Table 1, segregated into age groups of 3–4- and 5–6-year-olds, and Table 4 shows the absolute and relative values of TEE by sex and age group. There was no interaction between sex and age group. Age group differences are shown for all parameters except BMI and FMI, and gender differences were significant for all body composition indices. The absolute values of TEE showed a significant age group difference, whereas the relative values showed no difference. TEE for boys and girls was 1260.9 ± 357.8 and 1265.2 ± 408.0 in the 3–4-year-old group and 1682.3 ± 489.0 and 1693.1 ± 473.3 kcal/day in the 5–6-year-old group, respectively. Contrarily, the relative values did not show any difference between the sexes or age groups. TEE per body weight were 83.17 ± 29.17 and 84.87 ± 26.26 in the 3–4-year-old group and 85.45 ± 23.17 and 86.67 ± 22.60 kcal/kg/day in the 5–6-year-old group for boys and girls, respectively. TEE per FFM were 104.37 ± 36.85 in the 3–4-year-old group and 105.28 ± 29.13 in the 5–6-year-old group for boys, and 115.80 ± 36.98 and 111.80 ± 26.93 kcal/kg/day for girls, respectively.
Table 5 shows the relationship between TEE, body size, and body composition. All parameters except %fat showed significant positive correlations with TEE, and FFM showed the highest correlation. After adjusting for age in months for FFM and FM, a significant relationship remained between TEE adjusted for age in months and each item. TEE was adjusted for FFM, and TEE was adjusted for both FFM and FM; however, no relationship was found with both the parameters.
Tables 6 and 7 show an international comparison of TEE using the DLW method in recent studies for boys and girls, respectively. TEE is presented in absolute and relative per body weight values, and subject information such as race is indicated. The results for this study are also presented for children aged 3–6 years (Table 2), 3–4 years, and 5–6 years (Table 4), respectively. The number of participants in this study was much larger than those seen in previous studies. The absolute and relative values for boys were comparable to those of other studies, while the absolute values for girls were comparable, but the relative values were slightly higher.
We have determined the energy consumption of pre-school and school-going Japanese children using the DLW method. The current Japanese dietary reference intake (Japanese-DRI)  is tentatively determined based on data from the DLW study of pre-school children in North America and European countries, which indicate that the EERs are 1300 for boys aged 3–5 years and 1250 kcal/day for girls . There is limited data on TEE, calculated using the DLW method, for pre-school and school-going children including Japanese children. Only two studies have examined the TEE of 8 and 23 Japanese pre-school children, respectively [6, 33]. Therefore, the results of this study, which includes a larger number of participants, is important for establishing accurate estimated energy requirements (EER) of Japanese and Asian pre-school children. Comparisons with previous data for the same age in other countries are shown in Table 6 for boys and Table 7 for girls. The tables show the results from this study for all participants and age groups for boys and girls, respectively. In addition, most of the previous studies were from Western countries with only two studies based on Asians with pre-school and school-going Japanese children. The results of our study are comparable with or slightly higher than those reported in previous studies.
In addition, the Japanese-DRI  indicates that the reference height for 3–5-year-olds is 103.6 cm for boys and 103.2 cm for girls, and the reference weight is 16.5 kg for boys and 16.1 kg for girls. Children aged 5.2 years in a study by Nishimoto et al. , in comparison with those from two previous studies on Japanese participants, had a height of 96.2 cm and a weight of 13.4 kg, which were smaller than those according to the Japanese-DRI standards. Their TEE was also small at 1133 kcal/day. However, this research was a special study of healthy children of short stature (n = 8). In another study by Yamada et al. , children aged 5.1 years had a height of 107.2 cm and a weight of 17.5 kg, which were slightly larger than those according to the Japanese-DRI standards , but the TEE was the same at 1300 kcal. In the present study, the 3–4-year-old children were slightly small in height (100.6 for boys and 97 cm for girls) and weight (15.6 for boys and 15.0 kg for girls). Their TEE was 1260.9 for boys and 1265 kcal for girls, which was similar to the TEE recommendations of the Japanese-DRI . Therefore, the results of this study are similar or slightly higher than those reported by Yamada et al. . In terms of TEE per body weight, the previous study was in the 70 kcal/kg range, while the present study was in the 80 kcal/kg range for both boys and girls. Body weight was composed of body fat mass and lean mass (weight = FM + FFM). If Japanese children have a lower body FM, that is, a lower degree of obesity than that in Westerners, the value of TEE per body weight is likely to be higher. Comparing the frequency of obesity in Japanese and Western children, the results were clearly higher in Westerners . Yamada et al.  and Komura et al.  reported that changes in TEE were strongly influenced by FFM in Japanese pre-school children or pre-teens, and FFM can be used to predict TEE. In this study, TEE and FFM were significantly correlated. It is also necessary to measure body composition in order to compare TEE per FFM, which is an issue that needs to be discussed in the future. In addition, this study did not examine activity energy expenditure (AEE). It is clear that AEE affects TEE throughout lifespan, especially at 5–10 years of age , and so the differences in TEE per FFM in this study compared to other countries may be due to differences in AEE. It was not possible to study this further with the data we currently have. Therefore, we believe that in the future, it is imperative to evaluate TEE in association with AEE using accelerometry or model with two components (activity and basal expenditure).
Next, we compared the TEE results obtained from the estimation equation with the results of this study. The TEE indicated by the DRI of Japanese children with a “normal” physical activity level (PAL) in 2020 data was 1300 for boys and 1250 kcal/day for girls in 3–5-year-old children and 1550 kcal/day for boys and 1450 kcal/day for girls in 6–7-year-old children, respectively . Considering the age structure, the results of this study were slightly higher than those of the others (this study: 3–4-year-old boys; 1260.9 and girls; 1265 kcal/day, 5–6-year-old boys; 1686.2 and girls 1693.1 kcal/day). This tendency is consistent with the results of a previous study , which showed data for Japanese children between the ages of 10 and 12. In other words, it is possible that the DRI for Japanese children may be slightly underestimated. Contrarily, the TEE values calculated from the data of the participants in this study using the formula for estimating DRI (developed based on the TEE obtained by the DLW method in the USA and Canada)  were 1605.6 for boys and 1551.3 kcal/day for girls. These values were comparable to the results of this study (boys; 1535.7 and girls; 1572.5 kcal/day). The average difference between the TEE from the estimation formula and the TEE of this study was only 69.8 for boys and 23.3 kcal/day for boys and girls, respectively. Furthermore, when compared to TEE predicted using Torun’s equation in accordance with the FAO/WHO/UNU 2004 Expert Consultation, Torun’s data was 1310.7 for boys and 1371.3 kcal/day for girls, which clearly showed to be lesser than that observed in the results of this study [7, 35].
We would like to emphasize that this study was unique in that it included a larger number of children than those in previous studies and that the TEE was presented separately for each age group. However, this study had several limitations. Previous studies have shown that children’s physical activity varies with the season and that they are especially less active in the winter months [37,38,39,40,41]. This study included data measured in spring and winter in a single region. Seasonal differences and effects were not taken into account. Similarly, in particular, Japan has a long north–south axis and lifestyles differ greatly from region to region (urban, rural, and mountainous areas). There have been a study examining regional differences in physical activity in Japanese children , which have shown no regional differences in results. However, this study has not evaluated TEE or AEE. Thus, it is necessary to take regional influences into consideration. Furthermore, TEE was affected by the amount of daily activity. Yamada et al.  showed a correlation between TEE and step count in pre-school children. Physical activity and energy expenditure are expected to vary between holidays and weekdays [43,44,45]. The measurement error in the dietary intake assessment is based on household information, where dietary intake tends to fluctuate, especially on weekends . Further research is needed to include seasonal and regional effects in Japan, as well as the day of measurement. Several studies have suggested that there may be racial/ethnic differences in energy metabolism and whole-body or organ-specific composition, even for the same body size [47,48,49].
Regular physical activity is an important component of childhood physical health and is associated with increased skeletal muscle mass and strength. Children with low levels of physical activity may experience health problems such as muscle loss in the future . Thus, reduced PA in children may affect healthy growth and development. Furthermore, in recent years, the lifestyles of people around the world have significantly changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it has been reported that their changes have a significant impact on well-being and physical activity. Gilbert  indicated that there was an association between COVID-19 restrictions and reduced PA.
At this time, there are limited data available on Asian populations. Therefore, further studies on children in Asian countries are needed in addition to studies on Japanese children . Taken together, with further research, we hope that the data from this study on energy expenditure in large participants will help establish the original reference values for Japanese children, which will be able to serve future health education in Japanese children. In addition, since there are few Japanese original source data, the Japanese-DRI is presented using data from overseas children, so DRI in Japanese children is likely to be underestimated. Accordingly, it is necessary to further update the TEE data using the DLW method, including this study, to contribute to the construction of DRI that are applicable in real life.
Availability of data and materials
The data sets acquired and analyzed in this study contain a great deal of personal information about the participants. Therefore, it will be disclosed at the discretion of the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Doubly labeled water
Total energy expenditure
Body mass index
Total body water
Fat-free mass index
Fat mass index
Estimated energy requirement
Physical activity level
Dietary reference intake
Activity energy expenditure
Simmonds M, Llewellyn A, Owen CG, Woolacott N. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2016;17:95–107. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12334.
Guo S, Chumlea WC, Roche AF, Gardner JD, Siervogel RM. The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at 35y. Am J Clin Nurt. 1994;59:810–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/59.4.810.
UNICEF/WHO/World Bank. Levels and trends in child malnutrition: key findings of the 2019 edition. World Health Organization. 2019:1–16. https://www.unicef.org/media/60626/file/Joint-malnutrition-estimates-2019.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2022.
Rosiek A, Maciejewska FN, Leksowski K, Rosiek-Kryszewska A, Leksowski L. Effect of television on obesity and excess of weight and consequences of health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:9408–26. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809408.
Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJR, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, Hergenroeder AC, Must A, Nixon PA, Pivarnik JM, Rowland T, Trost S, Trudeau F. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146(6):732–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055.
Yamada Y, Sagayama H, Itoi A, Nishimura M, Fujisawa K, Higaki Y, Kimura M, Aoki YZS. Total energy expenditure, body composition, physical activity, and step count in Japanese preschool children: a study based on doubly labeled water. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051223.
Torun B. Energy requirements of children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(7A):968–93. https://doi.org/10.1079/phn2005791.
Burrows T, Goldman S, Rollo M. A systematic review of the validity of dietary assessment methods in children when compared with the method of doubly labelled water. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020;74(5):669–81. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-019-0480-3.
Nagy K. Introduction. In: Prentice AM, editor. The doubly-labelled water method for measuring energy expenditure. Technical Recommendations for Use in Humans. Vienna: Internal Atomic Energy Agency; 1990. p. 1–16.
Komura K, Nakae S, Hirakawa K, Ebine N, Suzuki K, Ozawa H, Yamada Y, Kimura M, Ishii K. Total energy expenditure of 10- to 12-year-old Japanese children measured using the doubly labeled water method. Nutr Metab. 2017;15(14):70. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-017-0226-y.
Pontzer H, Yamada Y, Sagayama H, Ainslie PN, Andersen LF, Anderson LJ, Arab L, Baddou I, et al. Daily energy expenditure through the human life course. Science. 2021;373(6556):808–12. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe5017.
The Japanese Association for Human Auxology. Basic approach to the assessment of body size in Japanese children. Information Disclosure. https://www.auxology.jp/disclosure/ja-children. Accessed 20 Dec 2021.
Kushner RF, Schoeller DA, Fjeld CR, Danford L. Is the impedance index (ht2/R) significant in predicting total body water? Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:835–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/56.5.835.
Fomon SJ, Haschke F, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE. Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;35:1169–75. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/35.5.1169.
Scholler DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y, Acheson KJ, Baertschi P, Jequier E. Energy expenditure by doubly water: validation in humans and proposed calcukation. Am J Physiol. 1986;250:R823–30. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1986.250.5.R823.
Weir JB. New Methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol. 1949;109:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1949.sp004363.
STROBE Statement-Checklist of items that should be included in reports of cross-sectional studies. STROBE Checklist. https://www.strobe-statement.org/checklists/. Accessed 31 Jan 2022.
Davies PSW, Gregory J, White A. Energy expenditure in children aged 1.5 to 4.5 years: a comparison with current recommendations for energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:360–4.
Davies PSW, Livingstone MBE, Prentice AM, Coward WA, Jagger SE, Stewart C, Strain JJ, Whitehead RG. Total energy expenditure during childhood and adolescence. Proc Nutr Soc. 1991;50:14A.
Salazar G, Vio F, Garcia C, Aguirre E, Coward WA. Energy requirements in Chilean infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2000;83:F120–3. https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.83.2.f120.
Kaskoun MC, Johnson RK, Goran MI. Comparison of energy intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire with total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in young children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:43–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/60.1.43.
Butte NF, Wong WW, Wilson TA, Adolph AL, Puyau MR, Zakeri IF. Revision of Dietary Reference Intakes for energy in preschool-age children. Am J ClinNutr. 2014;100(1):161–7. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.081703.
Goran MI, Carpenter WH, Poehlman ET. Total energy expenditure in 4- to 6-yr-old children. Am J Physiol. 1993;264(5 Pt 1):E706-11. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.1993.264.5.E706.
Reilly JJ, Kelly LA, Montgomery C, Jackson DM, Slater C, Grant S, Paton JY. Validation of Actigraph accelerometer estimates of total energy expenditure in young children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(3):161–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/17477160600845051.
Wren RE, Blume H, Mazariegos M, Solomons N, Alvarez JO, Goran MI. Body composition, resting metabolic rate, and energy requirements of short- and normal-stature, lowincome Guatemalan children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:406–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/66.2.406.
Goran MI, Gower BA, Nagy TR, Johnson RK. Developmental changes in energy expenditure and physical activity in children: evidence for a decline inphysical activity ingirls before puberty. Pediatrics. 1998;101:887–91. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.101.5.887.
Goran MI, Kaskoun M, Johnson R, Martinez C, Kelly B, Hood V. Energy expenditure and body fat distribution in Mohawk children. Pediatrics. 1995;95:89–95.
Fontvieille AM, Harper IT, Ferraro RT, Spraul M, Ravussin E. Daily energy expenditure by five-year-old children, measured by doubly labelled water. J Pediatr. 1993;123:200–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3476(05)81689-0.
McLean R, Cameron C, Butcher E, Cook NR, Woodward M, Campbell N. Comparison of 24-hour urine and 24-hour diet recall for estimating dietary sodium intake in populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Hypertens. 2019;21(12):1753–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.13729.
Migueles JH, Nyström CD, Henriksson P, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Ortega FB, Lof M. Accelerometer Data Processing and Energy Expenditure Estimation in Preschoolers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51(3):590–8. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001797.
Montgomery C, Reilly JJ, Jackson DM, Kelly LA, Slater C, Paton JY, Grant S. Validation of energy intake by 24-hour multiple pass recall: comparison with total energy expenditure in children aged 5–7 years. Br J Nutr. 2005;93(5):671–6. https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn20051405.
Ministry of Health Labour and Walfare Japan. Japanese Dietary Reference Intake. Dai-ichi Shuppan: Tokyo; 2020.
Nishimoto Y, Ida S, Etani Y, Ebine N, Nakae S, Miyatani S. Determination of total energy expenditure using the doubly labeled water method and expired gas analysis in short-stature children. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi. 2013;66:133–9. https://doi.org/10.4327/jsnfs.66.133.
Inokuchi M, Takahashi T. Obesity in Japanese children: diagnosis, frequency, and international comparison Obesity around the world. J Keio Med Soc. 2009;85(2):53–85 (http://koara.lib.keio.ac.jp/xoonips/modules/xoonips/detail.php?koara_id=AN00069296-20090400-0233).
Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. II Energy and Nutrients, Energy. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2015. p. 32–65. https://www.mhlw.go.jp/content/10900000/000862490.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2022.
George AB, Nancy FB, William MR, Jean-Pierre F, Benjamin C. Chronicle of the Institute of Medicine physical activity recommendation: how a physical activity recommendation came to be among dietary recommendations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):921S-930S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.5.921S.
Carson V, Spence JC, Cutumisu N, Boule N, Edwards J. Seasonal variation in physical activity among preschool children in a northern Canadian City. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2010;81:392–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2010.10599699.
Kolle E, Steene-Johannessen J, Andersen LB, Anderssen SA. Seasonal variation in objectively assessed physical activity among children and adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys. 2009;6:36. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-6-36. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-6-36.
Cooper AR, Page AS, Wheeler BW, Hillsdon M, Griew P, Jago R. Patterns of GPS measured time outdoors after school and objective physical activity in English children: the PEACH project. Int J Behav Nutr Phys. 2010;7:31. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-31.
Duncan JS, Hopkins GW, Schofield G, Duncan EK. Effects of weather on pedometer-determined physical activity in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(8):1432–8. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816e2b28.
Hjorth MF, Chaput JP, Michaelsen K, Astrup A, Tetens I, Sjödin A. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:808. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-808.
Tanaka C, Abe T, Okada S, Tanaka S, Okuda M. Comparison of indicators for physical activity in primary school and junior high school students in 47 prefectures-according to international indicators based on “Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.” Japanese Assoc Exerc Epidemiol. 2018;20(1):37–48 (https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ree/20/1/20_20.37/_pdf/-char/ja).
Nagy LC, Faisal M, Horne M, Collings P, Barber S, Mohammed M. Factors associated with accelerometer measured movement behaviours among White British and South Asian children aged years during school terms and school holidays. BMJ Open. 2019;9(8):e025071. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025071.
Fairclough SJ, Boddy LM, Mackintosh KA, Valencia-Peris A, Ramirez-Rico E. Weekday and weekend sedentary time and physical activity in differentially active children. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(4):444–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.06.005.
Lee JE, Stodden DF, Gao Z. Young children’s energy expenditure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays and weekends. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13:1013–6. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2015-0725.
Sepp H, Lennernas M, Pettersson R, Abrahamsson L. Children’s nutrient intake at preschool and at home. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:483–91 (PMID: 11430705).
Blanc S, Schoeller DA, Bauer D, Danielson ME, Tylavsky F, Simonsick EM, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Everhart JE. Energy requirements in the eighth decade of life. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:303–10. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.2.303.
Silva AM, Wang J, Pierson RN Jr, Wang Z, Heymsfield SB, Sardinha LB, Heshka S. Extracellular water: greater expansion with age in African Americans. J Appl Physiol. 2005;99:261–7. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01317.2004.
Gallagher D, Albu J, He Q, Heshka S, Boxt L, Krasnow N, Elia M. Small organs with a high metabolic rate explain lower resting energy expenditure in African American than in white adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:1062–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.5.1062.
Ito T, Sugiura H, Ito Y, Noritake K, Ochi N. Relationship between the skeletal muscle mass index and physical activity of Japanese children: a cross-sectional, observational study. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(5):e0251025. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251025.
Gilbert AS, Schmidt L, Beck A, Kepper MM, Mazzucca S, Eyler A. Associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with child mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2021;21:1770. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11805-6.
We appreciate the time and effort spent by our volunteers. We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.com) for English language editing.
This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant Numbers JP20700537, JP16K0182.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study was conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research, and the Act on the Protection of Personal Information. Furthermore, this study received ethical approval from the research ethics committee, Aichi University of Education, Japan. The children’s informed consent was confirmed through kindergarten and children’s parents provided before measurements began.
Consent for publication
The authors declare no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Teramoto, K., Otoki, K., Muramatsu, E. et al. Determining total energy expenditure in 3–6-year-old Japanese pre-school children using the doubly labeled water method. J Physiol Anthropol 41, 28 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40101-022-00301-4
- Total energy expenditure
- Doubly labeled water method
- Pre-school Japanese children